Biology Chapter 5 Objectives

Biology Chapter 5 Objectives - Chapter 5 The Structure and...

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Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecules The Principles of Polymers 1. The four major classes of macromolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. 2. Polymers are a long molecules consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds. The repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer are small molecules called monomers. 3. a. Dehydration reaction in the synthesis of a polymer: Dehydration removes a water molecule, forming a new bond. HO H H 2 0 HO H b. Hydrolysis of a polymer: Hydrolysis adds a water molecule, breaking a bond. HO H H 2 0 HO H Carbohydrates Serve as Fuel and Building Material 4. Monosaccharides have molecular formulas that are some multiple of the unit CH 2 0. They are major nutrients for cells. Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage. Polysaccharides are macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages. Some serve as storage material, 1 2 3 H 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 H
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hydrolyzed as needed to provide sugar for cells. Other polysaccharides serve as building material for structures that protect the cell or the whole organism. 5. Glycosidic linkage is a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction. 6. Glycosidic linkages found in starch and cellulose differ, and are biologically important because they give the two molecules distinct three-dimensional shapes. A starch molecule is mostly helical. A cellulose molecule is straight, never branched, and its hydroxyl groups are free to hydrogen-bond with the hydroxyls of other cellulose molecules lying parallel to it. 7. The symbiosis relationship is present during cellular digestion. Enzymes that digest starch by hydrolyzing its α linkages are unable to hydrolyze the β linkages of cellulose because of the distinctly different shapes of these two molecules. Although most organisms possess enzymes that can digest cellulose humans do
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This note was uploaded on 08/29/2009 for the course BIOL 101 taught by Professor Sakji during the Fall '08 term at Linn Tech.

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Biology Chapter 5 Objectives - Chapter 5 The Structure and...

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