Biology Chapter 11 Objectives

Biology Chapter 11 Objectives - Chapter 11 Cell...

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Chapter 11 Cell Communication An Overview of Cell Signaling 1. The basic signal-transduction pathway used for mating in yeast is: 1) Exchange in mating factors; Each cell type secretes a mating factor that binds to receptors on the other cell type. 2) Mating; Binding of the factors to receptors induces changes in the cells that lead to their fusion. 3) New a/α cell; The nucleus of the fused cell includes all the genes from the a and α cells. These pathways are believed to have evolved before the first multicellular organisms appeared on Earth because they are similar to mammals, although the last common ancestor of these two groups of organisms lived over a billions year ago. It is believed that signaling mechanisms evolved first in ancient prokaryotes and single-celled eukaryotes and were then adopted for new uses by the multicellular descendants. 2. Paracrine signaling is when numerous cells can simultaneously receive and respond to the molecules of growth factor produced by a single cell in their vicinity. A secreting cell acts on nearby target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator into the extracellular fluid. 3.
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Biology Chapter 11 Objectives - Chapter 11 Cell...

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