Biology Chapter 19 Objectives

Biology Chapter 19 Objectives - Chapter 19 Eukaryotic...

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Chapter 19 Eukaryotic Genomes: Organization, Regulation, and Evolution The Structure of Eukaryotic Chromatin 1. The typical eukaryotic genome is much larger, and in multicellular eukaryotes, cell specialization is crucial. In eukaryotes, the DNA-protein complex, called chromatin is ordered into higher structural levels than the DNA-protein complex in prokaryotes. Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes must alter their patterns of gene expression in response to changes in environmental conditions. Multicellular eukaryotes must develop and maintain multiple cell types; each of these cell types contains the same genome but expresses a different subset of genes, a significant challenge in gene regulation. In prokaryotes and eukaryotes, gene expression is most often regulated at the stage of transcription. 2. The current model for progressive levels of DNA packing in eukaryotes is that unfolded chromatin has the appearance of beads on a string. Each bead is a nucleosome, the basic unit of DNA packing and the string between the beads in called linker DNA. 3. Histones influence folding in eukaryotic DNA because it aids with its interactions that cause the extended fiber to coil or fold, forming a chromatin fiber. 4. Heterochromatin is a type of interphase chromatin visible as irregular clumps with a light microscope. Euchromatin is less compacted than heterochromatin. The Control of Gene Expression 5. Differentiation is a process of specialization in form and function during the development of a multicellular organism. This results in several or many differentiated cell types. The differences between cell types are due to differential gene expression, the expression of different genes by cells with the same genome.
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Biology Chapter 19 Objectives - Chapter 19 Eukaryotic...

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