Biology Chapter 27 Objectives

Biology Chapter 27 Objectives - Chapter 27 Prokaryotes...

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Chapter 27 Prokaryotes Structural, Functional, and Genetic Adaptations Contribute to Prokaryotic Success 1. It might be said that the history of life on Earth is one long “age of prokaryotes” because of their dominance in the biosphere throughout their history. 2. Prokaryotes are unable to grow in very salty or sugary foods such as cured meats or jam because it would result in a hypertonic environment that would cause the prokaryote to lose water and shrink away from their wall. 3. a) A capsule is a sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein that enables prokaryotes to adhere to their substrate or to other individuals in a colony; capsules can also shield pathogenic prokaryotes from attacks by their host’s immune system. b) Fimbriae are hairlike appendages. c) Sex pili are specialized pili that link prokaryotes during conjugation, a process in which one cell transfers DNA to another cell. d) A nucleoid region is a part of the cytoplasm that appears lighter than the surrounding cytoplasm in electron micrographs. e) Plasmids are small rings of DNA, mostly consisting of only a few genes; plasmid genes provide resistance to antibiotics, direct the metabolism of rarely encountered nutrients. f) Endospores are resistant cells that form when an essential nutrient is lacking in the environment. 4. Prokaryotes carry out cellular respiration when they lack compartmentalized organelles such as mitochondria by means of gaining energy from light, chemicals, or the compound CO 2 . 5. The three domains of life are: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. 6.
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Biology Chapter 27 Objectives - Chapter 27 Prokaryotes...

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