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Biology Chapter 30 Objectives

Biology Chapter 30 Objectives - Chapter 30 Plant Diversity...

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Chapter 30 Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants Key Terrestrial Adaptations Were Crucial to the Success of Seed Plants 1. Five terrestrial adaptations that contributed to the success of seed plants: a) Advantages of Reduced gametophytes: Seed plants develop within the walls of spores retained within tissues of the parent sporophyte, which provides protection and nutrients. b) Heterospory: seed plants evolved from plants that had megasporangia (which produce megaspores that give rise to female gametophytes) and microsporangia (which produce microspores that give rise to male gametophytes). c) Ovules and Production of eggs: An ovule consists of a megasporangium, megaspore, and protective integument(s). The female gametophyte develops from the megaspore and produces one or more eggs. d) Pollen and Production of Sperm: Pollen, which can be dispersed by air or animals, eliminated the water requirement for fertilization. e) The Evolutionary Advantage of Seeds: A seed is a sporophyte embryo, along with its food supply, packaged in a protective coat. Seeds are more resistant than spores and can be distributed widely by wind or animals. 2. The gametophytes of bryophytes are visible to the eye while those of seed plants are mostly microscopic. Bryophytes (and mosses) have gametophyte-dominant life cycles and the dependent sporophyte which is nourished by the gametophyte as it grows out of the archegonium. The reduced gametophytes of seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms) are surrounded by sporophyte tissue from which the gametophyte derives its nutrition. 3. The ovule of a seed plant includes the megasporangium, megaspore, and their integument(s). Inside each ovule, a megaspore develops into a multicellular female gametophyte which produces one or more egg cells.
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