Biology Chapter 38 Objectives

Biology Chapter 38 Objectives - Chapter 38 Angiosperm...

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Chapter 38: Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology Sexual Reproduction 1. The basic plant life cycle is characterized by an alternation of generations in which haploid and diploid generations take turns producing each other. The diploid sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis. These spores then divide by mitosis which produces gametophytes which in turn produce gametes. Fertilization results in diploid zygotes that divide by mitosis and form new sporophytes. However, angiosperms have a dominant sporophyte generation in that it is the largest most conspicuous and longest-living plant we see. As a result of evolution the gametophyte has become small and wholly dependent on the sporophyte generation for nutrients. Angiosperm gametophytes only consist of several cells. Angiosperm sporophytes also develop the unique reproductive structure-the flower. 2. Petal to stamen to carpel to ovary. 3. a. sepals : a modified leaf in angiosperms that helps enclose and protect a flower bud before it opens b. petals : a modified leaf of a flowering plant. Petals are often colorful parts of a flower that advertise it to insects and other pollinators. c. stamen : the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament filament : the stalk of a stamen anther : in an angiosperm, the terminal pollen sac of a stamen, where pollen grains with males gametes form d. carpel : the ovule-producing reproductive organ of a flower consisting of the stigma, style and ovary style : the stalk of a flower’s carpel, with the ovary at the base and the stigma at the top ovary : in flowers, the portion of a carpel in which the egg-containing ovules develop ovule : a structure that develops within the ovary of a seed plant and contains the female gametophyte stigma : the sticky part of a flower’s carpel, which traps pollen grains 4. a. Complete flowers have all four basic floral organs sepals, petals, stamens and carpals. The incomplete flowers lack one or more of these organs. An example is grass flowers they lack petals.
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b. Bisexual flower have all four basic floral organs, which makes a complete flower. The bisexual flowers have both stamens and pistil. The unisexual flowers contain a pistil or stamens, but not both. The unisexual flower is either staminate (male), or carpellate (female). c. Monoecious plant species are when the staminate and carpellate flowers are on the same plant. Dioecious plant species has staminate flowers and carpellated flowers on separate plants. 5. Spores are made when each microsporocyte and mega-sporocyte undergoes meiosis and produce four haploid cells. In the pollen sac, all four microspores exist. In the embryo sac, only one of the four survives as the megaspore. 6. The female and male gametes found in angiosperms are the embryo sac and
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Biology Chapter 38 Objectives - Chapter 38 Angiosperm...

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