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Biology Chapter 40 Objectives

Biology Chapter 40 Objectives - Chapter 40 Basic Principles...

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Chapter 40: Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function Functional Animal Anatomy: An Overview 1. Bioenergetics: the flow of energy through an animal, taking into account the energy stored in the food it consumes, the energy used for basic functions, activity, growth, reproduction, and regulation, and the energy lost to the environment as heat or in waste. 2. Anatomy is the study of the structure of an organism while physiology is the study of the functions an organism performs. Body Plans and the External Environment 3. Physical laws constrain animal forms in that they act on the bodies of animals by mean of gravity, hydrodynamics, etc. For example, if animals are too heavy they won’t fly. 4. An animal’s body plan must allow all of its living cells to be bathed in an aqueous medium. Exchange with the environment occurs as substances dissolved in the aqueous medium diffuse and are transported across the cell’s plasma membranes. 5. Tissue: an integrated group of cells with a common function, structure, or both 6. Collagenous fibers are made of collagen and are non-elastic and do not tear easily when pulled lengthwise. Elastic fibers are long threads made of elastin and provide rubbery quality that complements the non-elastic strength of collagenous fibers. Reticular fibers are very thin and branched and composed of collagen and
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