Martin_Luther__Romans__and_the_Reformation

Martin_Luther__Romans__and_the_Reformation - INTRODUCTION:...

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INTRODUCTION: Romans played a crucial role in the reformation of the church—the event during which the Protestant wing of the church came into existence, swiftly followed by two other “reformations”: the radical reformation and the Catholic reformation. But what were the circumstances immediately preceding the Reformation? What role did Romans play in the life and study of a young monk, Martin Luther? You are about to find out: A Sketch of the Pre-Reformation Scene I. The Political Situation Germany: The Hapsburgs - The marriage in 1477 of Maximilian I of the house of Habsburg in Austria and Mary of Burgundy was a decisive event in early modern European history. Their son Philip of Burgundy was the father of Charles V (1500-1558) who inherited a conglomeration of territories (Burgundy, the Netherlands, Spain, the Spainish-American empire, the kingdom of Naples, and a claim to the duchy of Milan), especially since his mother was Joanna of Castile in Spain. Charles inherited the imperial title in 1519 and opened his first Diet in 1521, the Diet of Worms. II. The Economic Situation A. In Europe prior to the beginning of the Reformation there had been an increase in the use of money and banking. Thus, there was a steady end to the barter society. B. The Church created schemes to raise revenues. 1. Peter’s pence- A tax from every family and sent to Rome. 2. Annates- A tax of the first years income of a new bishop. 3. Reservations- When a church position became open, RCC would leave it open and take the funds thereof. 4. Simony- Taken from Simon in Acts. The purchase of church offices. Sold to the highest bidder. 5. Court expenses- Fees for cases tried in ecclesiastical courts. Increased fee for those who wanted to have their cases tried in ecclesiastical courts. 6. Indulgences- Originating during the crusades. Pope Leo found it very useful to the church. It was the sell of certificates that free the person from damnation or some of the pains of purgatory. 1
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III. Ecclesiastical Conditions During the 14 th and 15 th centuries the prestige and power of the papacy declined dramatically. The period was marked by several crises in the Church. A. The Babylonian Captivity (1309-1377)- The Avignon papacy. The Papacy was moved away from Rome, to Avignon, in France. Pope Clement V was a Frenchman and person of weak moral character. The French king Philip was controlling the Pope. Politics in Italy were in great turmoil. This was a time a lucrative living which made the papacy disliked. With Pope Gregory XI (1377) the papacy went back to Rome. B. The Great Schism (1378-1417) Gregory XI died in 1378 and citizens in Rome wanted to keep the papacy in Rome. The cardinals were blackmailed and pressured to select Urban VI as Pope. Cardinals met four months later and repealed the decision because Urban was too revolutionary and instead elected Pope Clement VII of Geneva. Immediately, Clement moved the papacy back to Avignon. Thus, there was now two
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Martin_Luther__Romans__and_the_Reformation - INTRODUCTION:...

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