finallec2

finallec2 - EECS 252 Graduate Computer Architecture Lec 4...

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EECS 252 Graduate Computer Architecture Lec 4 – Memory Hierarchy Review David Patterson Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California, Berkeley http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pattrsn http://www-inst.eecs.berkeley.edu/~cs252
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09/09/09 CS252-s06, Lec 04-cache review 2 Review from last lecture Quantify and summarize performance Ratios, Geometric Mean, Multiplicative Standard Deviation F&P: Benchmarks age, disks fail,1 point fail danger Control VIA State Machines and Microprogramming Just overlap tasks; easy if tasks are independent Speed Up Pipeline Depth; if ideal CPI is 1, then: Hazards limit performance on computers: Structural: need more HW resources Data (RAW,WAR,WAW): need forwarding, compiler scheduling Control: delayed branch, prediction Exceptions, Interrupts add complexity pipelined d unpipeline Time Cycle Time Cycle CPI stall Pipeline 1 depth Pipeline Speedup × + =
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09/09/09 CS252-s06, Lec 04-cache review 3 Outline Review Redo Geomtric Mean, Standard Deviation 252 Administrivia Memory hierarchy Locality Cache design Virtual address spaces Page table layout TLB design options Conclusion
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09/09/09 CS252-s06, Lec 04-cache review 4 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 wupwise swim mgrid applu mesa galgel art equake facerec ammp lucas fma3d sixtrack apsi SPECfpRatio 1372 5362 2712 GM = 2712 GStDev = 1.98 Example Standard Deviation: Last time GM and multiplicative StDev of SPECfp2000 for Itanium 2 Outside 1 StDev Itanium 2 is 2712/100 times as fast as Sun Ultra 5 (GM), & range within 1 Std. Deviation is [13.72, 53.62]
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09/09/09 CS252-s06, Lec 04-cache review 5 Example Standard Deviation : Last time GM and multiplicative StDev of SPECfp2000 for AMD Athlon 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 wupwise swim mgrid applu mesa galgel art equake facerec ammp lucas fma3d sixtrack apsi SPECfpRatio 1494 2911 2086 GM = 2086 GStDev = 1.40 Outside 1 StDev Athon is 2086/100 times as fast as Sun Ultra 5 (GM), & range within 1 Std. Deviation is [14.94, 29.11]
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09/09/09 CS252-s06, Lec 04-cache review 6 - 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 wupwise swim mgrid applu mesa galgel art equake facerec ammp lucas fma3d sixtrack apsi Ratio Itanium 2 v. Athlon for SPECfp2000 0.75 2.27 1.30 GM = 1.30 GStDev = 1.74 Example Standard Deviation (3/3) GM and StDev Itanium 2 v Athlon Outside 1 StDev Ratio execution times (At/It) = Ratio of SPECratios (It/At) Itanium 2 1.30X Athlon (GM), 1 St.Dev. Range [0.75,2.27] Exec. Time SPECratio 0.92 0.92 1.77 1.77 1.49 1.49 1.85 1.85 0.60 0.60 2.16 2.16 4.40 4.40 2.00 2.00 0.85 0.85 1.03 1.03 0.83 0.83 0.92 0.92 1.79 1.79 0.65 0.65
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09/09/09 CS252-s06, Lec 04-cache review 7 Comments on Itanium 2 and Athlon Standard deviation for SPECRatio of 1.98 for Itanium 2 is much higher-- vs. 1.40--so results will differ more widely from the mean, and therefore are likely less predictable SPECRatios falling within one standard deviation: 10 of 14 benchmarks (71%) for Itanium 2 11 of 14 benchmarks (78%) for Athlon Thus, results are quite compatible with a lognormal distribution (expect 68% for 1 StDev) Itanium 2 vs. Athlon St.Dev is 1.74, which is high, so less confidence in claim that Itanium 1.30 times as fast as Athlon Indeed, Athlon faster on 6 of 14 programs Range is [0.75,2.27] with 11/14 inside 1 StDev (78%)
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Memory Hierarchy Review
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Since 1980, CPU has outpaced DRAM .
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finallec2 - EECS 252 Graduate Computer Architecture Lec 4...

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