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ch_9_stud - Click to edit Master subtitle style SYNTAX...

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Unformatted text preview: Click to edit Master subtitle style SYNTAX Chapter 9 Syntax Its the branch of linguistics that describes and explains the arrangement of ordering words within phrases and sentences. Syntax: structure and ordering of components within a sentence. Syntax Noam Chomsky: Syntactic Structures His theory was originally called transformational- generative grammar and is now called minimalism. Generative grammar A formal set of grammatical rules that model the subconscious procedures that allow native speakers of any language to generate grammatical sentences. Scientific theory that explains how language is possible and how we all learn language Generative grammar Universal grammar: the system of principles, conditions, and rules that are elements or properties of all human languages. Generative grammar A rule of generative grammar for the structure of noun phrases in English might be: NPÿ Art (Adj) N The arrow means consists of. Rules like this specify what larger constituents (NP) consist of & are called phrase structure rules . Generative grammar It describes the syntactic structures of a lang. Small constituents = N, V, Art, Prep, etc Larger constituents= NP, VP, PP, etc A rule of generative grammar is similar to a mathematical expression or a formula. z = 3x + 2y Plug whole numbers in for x and y and generate an infinite number of values for z. Generative grammar NP � Art (Adj) N = phrase structure rule You can plug in words that belong to the grammatical categories article, adjective, and noun to generate an infinite number of English noun phrases. Properties of grammar The type of grammar that linguists like Chomsky are trying to create is one that generates all the well- formed sentences of the language but none of the ill- formed sentences. This is the all and only criterion rule grammar must generate all the grammatical sentences and only the grammatical sentences. Properties of grammar Another important characteristic of a generative grammar is that it must have a finite (limited) number of rules and still be able to generate an infinite number of well-formed sentences. Properties of grammar Generative grammars also need their rules to be recursive you have to be able to apply them more than once in generating a given sentence or a syntactic structure. Properties of grammar Given a sentence (S) NP + VP, NP Art + N VP V + PP How many different sentences could you generate? Properties of grammar Paul thought that Liz was at the store. Paul thought _______ PN + V Liz was at the store PN + VP Clauses...
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This note was uploaded on 08/30/2009 for the course COMD 2050 taught by Professor Collins during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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ch_9_stud - Click to edit Master subtitle style SYNTAX...

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