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ch_9_stud - Chapter 9 Click to edit Master subtitle style...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style SYNTAX Chapter 9
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Syntax It’s the branch of linguistics that describes and  explains the arrangement of ordering words within  phrases and sentences. Syntax:  structure and ordering of components  within a sentence.
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Syntax Noam Chomsky:  Syntactic Structures His theory was originally called transformational- generative grammar and is now called minimalism.
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Generative grammar A formal set of grammatical rules that model the  subconscious procedures that allow native speakers  of any language to generate grammatical sentences. Scientific theory that explains how language is  possible  and how we all learn language
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Generative grammar Universal grammar: the system of principles,  conditions, and rules that are elements or properties  of all human languages.
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Generative grammar A rule of generative grammar for the structure of  noun phrases in English might be: NP  Art (Adj) N The arrow means “consists of.” Rules like this specify what larger constituents  (NP) consist of & are called phrase structure rules .
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Generative grammar It describes the syntactic structures of a lang. Small constituents = N, V, Art, Prep, etc Larger constituents= NP, VP, PP, etc A rule of generative grammar is similar to a  mathematical expression or a formula. z = 3x + 2y Plug whole numbers in for x and y and generate an  infinite number of values for z.
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Generative grammar NP   Art (Adj) N = phrase structure rule You can plug in words that belong to the  grammatical categories article, adjective, and noun to  generate an infinite number of English noun phrases.
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Properties of grammar The type of grammar that linguists like Chomsky are  trying to create is one that generates all the well- formed sentences of the language but none of the ill- formed sentences. This is the “all and only” criterion rule – grammar  must generate  all  the grammatical sentences and  only  the grammatical sentences.
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Properties of grammar Another important characteristic of a generative  grammar is that it must have a  finite  (limited)  number of rules and still be able to generate an  infinite  number of well-formed sentences.
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Properties of grammar Generative grammars also need their rules to be  recursive  – you have to be able to apply them more  than once in generating a given sentence or a  syntactic structure.
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Properties of grammar Given a sentence (S) NP + VP, NP   Art + N VP    V + PP How many different sentences could you generate?
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Properties of grammar “Paul thought that Liz was at the store.” Paul thought _______   PN + V Liz was at the store       PN + VP
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