ch_11stu

ch_11stu - Chapter 11 Pragmatics Pragmatics Pragmatics: the...

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Chapter 11  Pragmatics
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Pragmatics Pragmatics:  the study of intended meaning -  when there is something more to or something  different from the literal meaning is conveyed,  and we explain those situations using  pragmatics.
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Invisible meaning Pragmatics tends to focus on what Yule calls  “invisible” meaning – how we recognize what is  meant even when it isn’t actually said or written. Assumptions and expectations that are shared by  speakers and listeners and by writers and readers  are an important aspect of pragmatics.
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Invisible meaning Parking sign- (p 113) You might see this sign in a city like New York or  Chicago.  You would know that it means heated  parking garage and not heated attendants. Newspaper ad- (p 114) The meaning is that this store is having a sale on  baby clothes, not that it is selling babies      (the literal meaning of the words in the ad).
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Situational Context encounter messages influences our interpretation  of those messages.
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Situational Context
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Context We rely on linguistic context to figure out the  meaning when there is less situational and  physical context. Linguistic context is also known as co-text. Co-text: the other words used in phrases or  sentences that help determine the meaning of the  word in a question.
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Context “I’m going to the bank to cash a check.” “I’m going to the bank to do some fishing.”
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Deixis Words that cannot be interpreted at all unless  the context, especially the physical context of the  speaker is known. Greek word meaning “pointing” (thru language).
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Deixis Place (spatial) deixis: pointing to a location - here, there Temporal deixis: pointing to a time - now, then, tomorrow, last month Person deixis: pointing to a person - Pronouns = I, you, he, she, it him, her, we,  they, them, etc…
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Deixis Some more deictic distinctions in English: This, these, here – refer to things that are close  to the speaker That, those, there – refer to things that are  further away from the speaker. “Come” indicates movement toward the speaker’s  location (come here) and “go” indicates  movement away from the speaker’s location  (there she goes).
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Deixis “You’ll have to bring that back tomorrow,  because they aren’t here now.” Well-formed sentence but meaningless when  taken out of context because it contains so many  deictic terms.
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Reference Reference:  an act by which  a speaker or writer  uses language to enable a listener or reader to  identify something.
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Inference: the listener’s use of additional  information to connect what is said to what must  be meant. Can I see your Yule?
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ch_11stu - Chapter 11 Pragmatics Pragmatics Pragmatics: the...

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