Study_Guide_Exam_1 - Study Guide Exam 1 Chapters 1 6...

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Study Guide:  Exam 1: Chapters 1 -6 Theories of language development o Divine source Biblical Tradition “whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof” Hindu Tradition Sarasvati (wife of Brahma) creator of the universe Occurs in most religions… Basic hypothesis: “if human infants were allowed to grow up without hearing any  language around them, then they would spontaneously begin using the original  God-given language.” Divine source experiments Psammetichus: Egyptian pharaoh o 2 newborn babies spontaneously uttered Bekos, the Phrygian word  meaning bread King James IV o Similar experiment but in Hebrew However, most children that are isolated from language at a very young age  grow up with no language at all o Natural Sound source Idea that primitive words were imitations of natural sounds Onomatopoeic Words whose pronunciations echo naturally occurring sounds. (Ex: splat,  zap, wham, ding, etc) Problematic because onomatopoeic words are rare, can’t explain soundless,  abstract concepts Natural Cries of Emotions Ouch! Ah! Ooh! Wow! Problematic because spoken language is produced in exhalation Yo-he-ho theory First words were grunts and groans made during coordinated physical  labor
Suggests that human language was developed in some kind of social context Problematic because apes and other primates have grunts and calls, are very social; but they have not developed the capacity for speech o Physical Adaptation Source More modern/scientific approach Examines biological basis of the formation and development of human language Describes physical characteristics that make language an efficient form of communication for humans How, rather than why Linguistics o Normal speech is produced through a complex series of movements that combine : o Respiration     : breathing Breathing provides the energy source for speech The vocal folds (in the larynx) are the valves that control the air flow out of the  lungs Vocal folds = vocal chords The larynx is made of cartilage, so it feels hard like bone but the vocal folds are  fleshy. They are made of muscle, collage, and membrane The vocal folds are at the level of your Adam’s apple – top part of the larynx The larynx is made of cartilage. The vocal folds are made of muscle, collagen,  and membrane o Phonation     : producing voice The production of a voice by the larynx Air flowing between the moving vocal folds produces sound Changes in the amount of air flowing through the vocal folds and the position and 

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