note01 - Introduction to Microelectronics Chapter 1...

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Introduction to Microelectronics Edwin C. Kan Page 1-1 1/16/2009 Chapter 1 O VERVIEW 1.1 The Information Era: Revolution by Microelectronics Ever since the invention of transistors by Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley in 1947 in Bell Labs, Murray Hills, NJ, followed by the monolithic integration invention of Kilby (TI) and the miniaturization vision of Feynman 1 (Caltech), the microelectronics in the CMOS technology platform has transformed our society in many aspects. Computers, cell phones, digital cameras, equipment microcontrollers and video games have become daily companions in our lives. The integrated circuits, vast amount of circuits carved in a piece of stone (silicon die), are the backbone for all electrical signal processing today, thanks to the superb scaling, i.e., billions of components can be integrated on an area of 1cm 2 . This “nano” feature has given the integrated circuits unprecedented capability, reliability, and efficiency. The evolution of microelectronics in the last 40 years is best described by the Moore’s Law, which describes the exponential change in feature size, transistors/chip, cost/bits, operations/sec, and market revenue, as shown in Fig. 1.1. For example, the transistor count per chip for CMOS technology doubles every 18 months for the last 40 years (from less than 1,000 in 1970 to over a billion in 2008). Although no exponential growth can be forever, the integrated circuits (IC) seem to achieve delaying the coming “eternity”… In 2009, the transistor size and pitch in CMOS integrated circuits are around 60nm, about 1,000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. The microelectronic chip is composed of about 15 – 20 layers of materials (mainly silicon, silicon dioxide, aluminum and copper) on a 1 Richard Feynman’s lecture in 1959 has been regarded as the initial declaration of “nanotechnology”. The original text can be found in . The prediction by Feynman then was not exactly correct, but amazingly close. Fig. 1.1. Moore’s Law that governs the microelectronics progression in terms of transistors/chip (functionality, speed), cost/bit and the minimal gate pitch feature size.
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Introduction to Microelectronics Edwin C. Kan Page 1-2 1/16/2009 silicon substrate and manufactured 2 by photolithography (similar to printing). In Fig. 1.2, the integrated circuits on a wafer, layout design and microscopy are shown. If each geometry feature is analogous to a brick for a building, today’s microprocessors built on the silicon are about the same complexity of Los Angles! The dynamics are just about as complex as well!! Fig. 1.2 . Microelectronics in various scales. Left: A production CMOS wafer containing many silicon dies; Middle: The layout designs of the 6x86 controller; Right: Electron microscopy of the metal layers on CMOS chips with the bronze color as copper in the upper layers and blue color as aluminum in the lower layers. The transistors underneath are not visible here due to both size and contrast. ( Exercise
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note01 - Introduction to Microelectronics Chapter 1...

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