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Review for Exam III Spring 08 (Autosaved)

Review for Exam III Spring 08 (Autosaved) - Chapter 31...

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Chapter 31- Fungi Exoenzymes- A powerful hydrolytic enzyme secreted by a fungus outside its body to digest food. Hyphae- (plural, hyphae) A filament that collectively makes up the body of a fungus. Mycelium- The densely branched network of hyphae in a fungus. Septa- One of the cross-walls that divide a fungal hypha into cells. Septa generally have pores large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell. Chitin – contained in fungal cell walls Coenocytic- Referring to a multinucleated condition resulting from the repeated division of nuclei without cytoplasmic division. Haustoria- In certain symbiotic fungi, specialized hyphae that can penetrate the tissues of host organisms. Heterokaryon- A fungal mycelium formed by the fusion of two hyphae that have genetically different nuclei. Plasmogamy- The fusion of the cytoplasm of cells from two individuals; occurs as one stage of syngamy. Karyogamy- The fusion of nuclei of two cells, as part of syngamy. Dikaryotic- Referring to a fungal mycelium with two haploid nuclei per cell, one from each parent. Chytridiomycotes (chytrids)- mostly aquatic fungi with flagellated zoospores that probably represent the most primitive fungal lineage. o Flagellated Zoospore- Flagellated spore occurring in chytrid fungi. Zygomycota (zygote fungi)- characterized by forming a sturdy structure called a zygosporangium during sexual reproduction o Zygosporangium) -a sturdy multinucleate structure in which karyogamy and meiosis occur. Glomeromycota- characterized by forming a distinct branching form of endomycorrhizae (symbiotic relationships with plant roots) called arbuscular mycorrhizae. o (arbuscular mycorrhizae)- the tips of the fungal hyphae that invade the plant roots branch into tiny treelike structures called arbuscles. Ascomycota (sac fungi)- Sac fungi range in size and complexity from unicellular yeasts to minute leafspot fungi to elaborate cup fungi and morels. About half of the sac fungi live with algae or cyanobacteria in the mutualistic associations called lichens. o Asci- A saclike spore capsule located at the tip of a dikaryotic hypha of a sac fungus. o Ascocarp- The fruiting body of a sac fungus (ascomycete). o Conidiophore- o Conidia- A naked, asexual spore produced at the ends of hyphae in ascomycetes. Basidiomycota (club fungi)- The common name for members of the phylum Basidiomycota. The name comes from the club-like shape of the basidium. o Basidium, Basidiospores, Basidiocarp Deuteromycetes (imperfect fungi, No known sexual stage) Lichens- The symbiotic collective formed by the mutualistic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic alga or cyanobacterium.
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o Soredia – for asexual reproduction o Composition of lichens (cyanobacterium or green algae + fungus) Mycosis- The general term for a fungal infection.
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