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BIOLOGY TEST VOCABULARY: CHAPTER 1: Archaea- One of two prokaryotic domains, the other being Bacteria. Bacteria - One of two prokaryotic domains, the other being Archaea. Biology - The scientific study of life. Biosphere- The entire portion of Earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems. Cell- Life’s fundamental unit of structure and function. Community -All the organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species living close enough together for potential interaction. Consumer- controlled experiment - An experiment in which an experimental group is compared to a control group that varies only in the factor being tested. deductive reasoning (if….then….) - A type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA )- A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell’s proteins. domain Archaea - One of two prokaryotic domains domain Bacteria -One of two prokaryotic domains domain Eukarya - includes all eukaryotic organisms ecosystem- emergent properties - New properties that emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases. eukaryotic cell - A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane- enclosed organelles. Organisms with eukaryotic cells (protists, plants, fungi, and animals) are called eukaryotes. Gene - A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses). Genome - The complete complement of an organism’s genes; an organism’s genetic material. Hypothesis - A tentative answer to a well-framed question. inductive reasoning - A type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observations. kingdom Animalia - consists of multicellular eukaryotes that ingest their food. kingdom Fungi - includes organisms that absorb nutrients after decomposing organic material. kingdom Plantae -consists of multicellular eukaryotes that carry out photosynthesis. negative feedback - primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation. Organ -specialized center of body function composed of several different types of tissues. organ system - A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions. Organelle - One of several formed bodies with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
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Organism - An individual living thing. Population - localized group of individuals that belong to the same biological species (that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring). positive feedback
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2009 for the course BIOL 112 taught by Professor Vaughn during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.

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