Biomolecule_Part_1

Biomolecule_Part_1 - Biomolecule Part 1 Chapter 5:...

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Biomolecule Part 1
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Chapter 5: biomolecules  5 major classes  Carbohydrates  Proteins Nucleic acids  Lipids  Small molecules 
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Formation of polymers  Polymers  Monomers; dimers, etc. Condensation reactions (in biochemistry)  coupling (synthesis) by dehydration  can be reversed by hydrolysis  An immense number of polymers can be  made from a limited set of monomers 
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Carbohydrates (saccharides) Sugars; Structural, nutritive, storage Typically a hydrate of carbon:   C 6 H 12 O 6 ,  or     (CH 2 O) 6 Usually asymmetric (“optically active”)  Notation is complex: ketose vs aldose   number of carbons
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Monosaccharides , particularly glucose, are  the major fuel for cellular work. Also the raw material for synthesis of other  monomers: amino acids, fatty acids. Almost always cyclize to form rings.
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There are two possible ring structures for  glucose:  alpha  and  beta These differ in the orientation of the hydroxyl  group attached to C1. 
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Disaccharides:  glycosidic  linkage,  formed  by dehydration. Maltose (malt sugar, a  homo dimer) is formed by  joining two glucose molecules. Sucrose (table sugar, a  hetero dimer) is formed  by joining glucose and fructose. 
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Starch is a polysaccharide of  α -glucose  monomers.
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β  linkages occur also:  Cellulose  is a major  component of the plant cell wall. 
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Nucleic Acids - Informational Polymers 1.Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary  information 2.Inheritance is based on replication of the DNA  double helix 3.We can use DNA and proteins as tape measures of  evolution 4.There are two types of nucleic acids: ribonucleic  acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
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polymers of monomers called  nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of three parts: a 
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This note was uploaded on 08/31/2009 for the course BIO 220 taught by Professor Morre during the Spring '09 term at USC.

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Biomolecule_Part_1 - Biomolecule Part 1 Chapter 5:...

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