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BIO311C_study_guide_exam_2.

BIO311C_study_guide_exam_2. - 1 Some study guide questions...

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Some study guide questions for Exam 2 1) Understand Miller-Urey experiment. What were the results? Used H2O, CH4, NH3, and H2 to stimulate Results: organic comp.; amino acids; C-containing comp. (hydrogen cyanide, formaldehyde); alanine and glutamic acid 2) What is the structural hierarchy in cells? 1) Mononumeric units (nucleotides, sugars, AA) 2) Macromolecules (DNA, protein, cellulose) 3) Supramolecular complexes (chromosome, PM, cell wall) 4) the cell and its Organelles 3) What are the three domains of life? Eukarya, bacteria, archaea 4) What are the characteristic components of prokaryotes (no nucleus)? Unicellular; PM; ribosomes; nucleoid; cell wall; pili; fimbraie; capsules; flagella, endospores [ when only cell walls are functional; harsh conditions] BACTERIA ARCHAEA— thermophiles (heat), halophiles (salt), methanogens (obtains NRG uniquely; prod. Methane from CO2 and H2; swamps and marshes) 5) Know how to build a bacterial cell COMPONENTS (outer inner): 1) capsule [ NOT PRESENT IN ALL BACTERIA; consists of polysaccharides; slippery; attaches to surfaces] 2) cell wall [ made up of peptidoglycan; shape] 3) PM (peptidoglycan) [ barrier. Transport, metabolic processes, detection, chemotaxis] 4) plasmid 5) cytoplasm 6) fimbriae [ attaches to surfaces] 7) flagella 8) ribosomes 9) nucleoid [ holds DNA] 10) pili [ xfers DNA; sex] 6) Compare and contrast bacteria and archaea with respect to: Plasma membrane , Nucleus, Cell wall , Peptidoglycan , Ability to grow in extreme conditions ( RED=B ; GREEN=A ; BLUE=BOTH ) 7) What is peptidoglycan? What is it composed of? Makes up bacterial cell wall……...( peptidog.-a matrix made of modified-sugar polymers cross-linked by short polypeptides) --NAG (N-acetyl glucosamine) and NAM (N-acetyl muramic acid) **KNOW SUGARS THAT MAKE IT UP** --D and L isomers of AA L-Alanine ; D-Glutamate; D-alanine 8) What are gram positive and gram negative bacteria? Gram + bacteria with simpler walls with a large amt of peptidoglycan Gram - less peptidoglycan but structurally complex; outer membrane with lipopolysaccharides (carbs bounded to lipids) 9) What extracellular structures are present outside the cell wall in certain bacteria? 1) flagella (movement) 2) pili (attach; mate) 3) fimbraie (attach; mate) 1
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10) What are the functions of the following in bacteria : plasma membrane, gas vacuole, endospore, cell wall, flagella, pili, nucleoid, ribosomes. PLASMA MEM.: select. Permeable; boundary of cell; nutrient + waste transport; metabolic processes (resp. + photosynthesis); detection of environmental cues for chemotaxis GAS VACUOLE: buoyancy for floating ENDOSPORE: survives harsh environments; only cell walls are functional CELL WALL: made up of peptidoglycan; rigid mechanical support; freely permeable to solutes FLAGELLA: movement PILI: attaches to surfaces; mating NUCLEOID: holds DNA RIBOSOMES: protein synthesis 11) Do bacteria have membrane bound organelles? NO Are ribosomes present in bacteria and archaea? SI 12) What are the energy sources in photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs? What is their carbon source?
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