Unformatted text preview: Class02.1 Teaming and Time Management Readiness Assessment Test 2.1
You have five minutes to answer the following questions: 1. List five engineering disciplines 2. List three engineering functions 3. ABET is an accrediting agency for professional registration of engineers. a. true b. false Exercise
Individually, please take 2 minutes to provide a written answer the following question: Why do we study Teams in this course? Exercise (continued)
AS A TEAM, please take 4 minutes to provide a written response to the following: Combine everyone's "Why Teams" list to form a new one. You must add at least one item to the individual answers. What is a Team Anyway?
TEAM (tem) n, 1.a. Two or more draft animals harnessed to a vehicle or farm implement. b. A vehicle along with the animal or animals harnessed to it. 2. A group of animals exhibited or performing together . 3. A group of players on the same side in a game. 4. Any group organized to work together. What is a Team Anyway? A team is a small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. Why Teams? Working in groups enhances activities in Active/Collaborative Learning Team skills are valued by industry Real engineers work in teams Common Team Problems
(Student's Perspective) One of my teammates never comes to class. One of my teammates never participates No one comes to our meeting prepared to work One of my team members is very rude Most of my teammates just want to rush to finish. Six Issues to be Considered in Team Building
x Interdependence - Outcomes are determined by actions of other members. Functioning independently, or competing with teammates, may lead to sub-optimal outcomes, for both you and the entire team. Six Issues to be Considered in Team Building
x Goal Specification - Team members must have common goals. Also, individuals must clearly communicate their goals to team members. Six Issues to be Considered in Team Building
xCohesiveness - Teams are cohesive when membership is valued; that is, when members are drawn toward the team. Task cohesiveness is the way that skills and abilities of team members mesh to effectively perform the task. Six Issues to be Considered in Team Building xNorms - Norms are the rules governing the behavior of team members, including rewards for positive behavior and sanctions for negative behavior. Norms can be formalized as a written document (e.g., a Code of Cooperation, discussed later). Six Issues to be Considered in Team Building xRoles - Role structure enables teams to cope more effectively with a given task. Six Issues to be Considered in Team Building x Communication - Effective interpersonal communication is vital for a team to function smoothly. Issues: - Is anybody "out of the loop?" - Do one or two dominant members claim all the "air time?" Aids to Team Communication Plus / Deltas (+ / 's). Plus (+) - positive comment about the team Delta () - a suggested improvement for the team. (Note: It cannot be a negative comment.) Aids to Team Communication Check for Understanding
ensures everybody in the team understands what is being discussed Aids to Team Communication Issue Bin topics to be addressed later in the meeting topics to be addressed in another meeting questions for later Write it down so you do not forget. Team Composition and Roles
TEAM ROLES Meeting Coordinator Recorder Timekeeper Encourager/ gatekeeper Devil's Advocate. Roles should rotate among team members. Exercise As an INDIVIDUAL take 3 minutes to Complete the first column of the Space Survival Worksheet As a TEAM take 5 minutes to Reach a consensus ranking of the items for the Space Survival Worksheet Important Team Roles Meeting Coordinator
- Coordinates and prepares the agenda - Coordinates time, date and place of meetings - Ensures all necessary resources are available for the meetings - Monitors the decision-making process - Coordinates the process check. However, this person IS NOT THE BOSS. Important Team Roles (continued) Recorder
- Responsible for writing during group work. - Maximizes participation by the rest of the team, because no one else needs to worry about writing. - Prepares an ACTION LIST to record assigned actions. - Makes sure that copies of their work are provided to the rest of the team. Important Team Roles (continued) Time Keeper
- Responsible for keeping track of time - Keeps the team moving so that they can finish the task at hand. Important Team Roles (continued) Encourager/ Gatekeeper
- Encourages all the other team members - Responsible for maintaining a balanced level of participation by all members. - Encourage the silent members and try to hold back the verbose, dominate members. Important Team Roles (continued) Devil's Advocate
- Takes a position opposite to that held by the team to ensure that all sides of an issue are considered. Team roles AS A TEAM, use 6 minutes to prepare a written answer to the following: How could we have used the team positions to make the Space Survival exercise have a better outcome? Code of Cooperation The agreed-upon rules governing the behavior of team members, as well as any appropriate rewards and sanctions. Code of Cooperation - Sets norms for acceptable behavior - Describes how team members will interact with one another - Should be developed, adopted, improved and/or modified by all team members on a continuous basis - A copy should be kept by all team members. Exercise INDIVIDUALLY, based upon your experience with the Space Survival exercise, as well as your past experiences, use 2 minutes to write down the following: What 2 elements would you like to see in your team's Code of Cooperation? Exercise AS A TEAM, use 8 minutes to do the following: 1. Discuss your individual Code of Cooperation
elements. 2. Agree which ones everyone would like to include in a draft Code of Cooperation. 3. Add 3 new elements. 4. Write a draft Code of Cooperation Five stages of Team Development FORMING (orientation) - Tentative interactions; polite discourse; concern over ambiguity; and self-discourse. STORMING (conflict) - Criticism of ideas; poor attendance; hostility; polarization; and coalition forming. Five stages of Team Development (continued) NORMING (cohesion) - Agree on procedures; reduce role ambiguity; revise Code of Cooperation based upon current experiences; and increase "we-feeling". PERFORMING (performance) - Decision making; problem solving; mutual cooperation; high task orientation; and emphasis is placed upon performance and production. ADJOURNING (dissolution) Effective Teamwork Includes:
x Using roles; x Developing a Code of Cooperation; x Using the check for understanding to be sure everybody is "on the same page"; x Developing effective listening skills; x Giving and taking constructive feedback; Effective Teamwork Includes:
(continued) q Using agendas for planning meetings:
q Using contact before work to provide time for nontask discussions; q Defining the decision-making process; q Using the issue bin to provide time for discussion of items not in the agenda; and q Using an ACTION LIST to record assigned actions; Effective Teamwork Includes:
(continued) Using a process check for continuous improvement; Obtaining a commitment from ALL team members. In the next few minutes... Compare your schedules to find meeting times. How to Succeed in Today's TEXAS A&M University "Managing Your Time Efficiently" Charles S. Lessard, Ph.D. 2001 Charles S. Lessard
"All rights reserved" "If you only do What you did before. Then you will only get, What you got before." Lets Discuss the Following: Preconditions Class schedule Study schedule Study environment Health Learning GOALS ? " To accomplish anything, you must first have a goal; and A goal is no more than a dream, unless you plan to accomplish " The Desired Goal !" GOAL SETTING Impacts your future career and life. Should not be taken lightly! Be careful in determining your goals, and in planning how to achieve your goals. Set both Short-range goals, and Long-range goals Checklist For Setting Goals Ask yourself, "Why am I here?" Write your reasons and purpose for being here. Outline what you wish to happen short range long range Determine why, what benefits, and how? Continuation of Goal Setting Set your goals What do you need to accomplish? Develop specific goals with time limits Make goals are measurable Realistic and action oriented Short-term: weekly, monthly, this semester. Long-term: This school year 2 yr, 4 yr, 5 yr, 10 yr Prioritize your goals Plan: What do I need to do to achieve my goals? What Leads to Success in Achieving your Goals? Control ! Using your time efficiently and effectively. How? Managing your time (24 h/day; 7 days/wk) Prioritizing what you spend your time doing. Tenacity; sticking with your time-management, programmed schedule. "So Lets Get Started" Preconditions Class schedule
Study schedule Study environment Health Learning The First Crossroad to the Future Role of Your Class Schedule One of the first things to control is: Your class schedule plays a major role in "success vs. failure" Because learning is really "repetition" Three parts to schedule Pre-study: (30 min before class) Review previous nights reading of what is to be lectured in class. In-Class time: (during class) Take notes of what is said. Post-study: (30 min after class) Review what was said in class. How to Set a Study Schedule
IDEAL TRIAL SCHEDULE Hr. AM 9 10 11 Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Preclass A Class A Class A Postclass A Preclass B Class B Class B Postclass B Preclass C Class C Class C Postclass C PM 7 Study for Class A 8 H/W for Class A Study for Class B H/W for Class B Study for Class C H/W for Class C The Ideal Schedule Preconditions Class schedule Study schedule
Study environment Health Learning The Second Crossroad to the Future HOW MUCH TIME SHOULD I STUDY? Non-quantitative courses 2 - 3 h for each credit hour English, History, Political Sciences, Humanities Quantitative courses 3 - 4 h for each credit hour ENGR 111, ENGR 112, 20X, project courses, etc. Special-demand courses 4 - 5 h for each credit hour Large number of problems (Math 151, 152, etc.) Very large reading assignments Example
Course MATH CHEM ENGL/
(HIST) Credit S. Time Study = X Hours credit h Time 4 3 12 4 3 2 1 15 3 3 3 1 + 12 9 6 1 40 = 55 h ENGR PHED TOTAL STOP ! How about some fun time? Sports? Eating Sleeping Non-academic "free-time" OK ! Lets put those times in! NONACADEMIC TIME
Activity Sleep Eating Health (bath, teeth) Cleaning room Dressing/Laundry Travel Time Church Food (shopping) Meetings Break Movie Total h / Week Est Time No. of No. of Total h h/activity Times/day Day/week Per Week 8.00 1 7 56.00 0.50 3 7 10.50 0.25 1 7 1.75 0.50 1 5 2.50 0.25 2 7 3.50 2.00 1 5 10.00 1.00 1 1 1.00 1.00 1 3 3.00 1.00 1 3 3.00 0.25 4 6 6.00 2.00 1 1 2.00 99.25 "Lets Put It Together"
Total hours in a week Total class & study time Total nonacademic time Total free time = 168 - (99 +55) = 168 h 55 h 99 h 14 h Into this 14 h, you must fit "other activities," such as football games going home for the weekend courting What Research has Uncovered Most people can focus attention for 15 to 20 minutes Studying the same material for 1 to 2 hours Is very inefficient. The mind wanders Therefore: Study in small chunks. 20 minutes at a time followed by a small 5-minute break Don't exceed 3 successive chunks/subject (1 h) Span of Attention and Study Block Time per Day Total 43 h Set Your Study Schedule
IDEAL TRIAL SCHEDULE h Sunday AM 9 10 11 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Preclass A Class A Class A Postclass A Preclass B Class B Class B Postclass B Preclass C Class C Class C Postclass C PM 7 Study for H/W for Study for Class A Class A Class B 8 H/W for Class B Study for Class C H/W for Class C Checklist For Your Schedule Fill in the working information needed for the "worksheet." Fill in all the "Time Blocks" scheduled for CLASSES and LABS (to nearest half-hour). Fill PRE-CLASS and POST-CLASS (special study) times. Fill in essential "SLEEP" times Fill in "ESSENTIAL" times Continuation (meals, getting ready, church) DO NOT fill in FREE times yet. Use Column G from your worksheet for each course. Spread this time fairly uniformly over the days you plan to study. The object is to have an approximately equal number of "Class plus Study" hours for each working day. Continuation Now take these times per day and fit them into empty time slots on your Schedule Remember guidelines about maximum times, ("Attention Span", "Shifting gears", and "Optimum times," etc.) Finally, take the remaining empty time blocks, allocate some number for "catch-up" activities mark the rest as FREE TIME. Are We Finished??...."NO!!" You have made a general schedule for: The weeks in this semester Management of "DAILY" activities: Program on weekly basis (every week) Program on Sunday for the coming week Determine tasks for the week, setting: Priorities with "due-dates" When you will devote time to the tasks Time limits (How much time for each task?) Use a daily planner or organizer (Review weekly) Cross-out completed tasks and Carry-over to next week uncompleted tasks Daily Time Management Hints "DON'T PROCRASTINATE!" Determine requirements for coming week Set priorities and goals for week. Make a daily "do-list". Determine daily priority tasks Postpone unnecessary activities/tasks Review your daily "do-lists" in the morning before work and in the evening. Don't spread yourself too thin (say, "NO!") Do only one task at a time. "Work Smarter, Not Harder" What Next? "Implementation" Follow your weekly and daily schedules Form the habit: "One activity to another" Carry one copy Post another copy in study area Adjust schedule after 2 weeks Check "priorities" and "do-lists", daily Study between classes (pre- and post-times) FOLLOW THE SCHEDULE ! DON'T PROCRASTINATE ! Preconditions Class schedule Study schedule Study environment
Health Learning A factor that can sink your grades. Study Environment
Questions: How many of you take your textbooks to study at a dance hall? How many of you take your textbooks to study in a movie theater? How many of you take your textbooks to study at the library? So, which is the "best" study environment?
Your study environment can affect your learning and subsequently your grades! The Model Model your "study environment" on the criteria for an examination environment. Quiet Comfortable Well lighted Free from "Distracters," and Dedicated to a single activity: "Studying" Regular Evening Study Area Must have: Sizeable, clean, uncluttered desk surface Comfortable chair Bookshelf and waste basket Clock with timer for self-examination Supply of pencils, pens, erasers, paper and pencil sharpener Dictionary and thesaurus Calculator Posted copy of "Time Management Study Schedule" and posted "Assignments with Due Date" What You Do NOT Want In Your Study Area Distracters that disrupt your attention Visual distracters Posters, pin-ups, photos Television turned "ON" Audio distracters Loud radio music or noises Telephone calls Disconnecting your phone or turn OFF the ringer. Let "Parents" know: "No calls between X to Y PM" Give them an emergency number (cell phone). Or use an answering machine. Preconditions Class schedule Study schedule Study environment Health
Learning "I need to study for tomorrow's exams, so I have to stay up late tonight ." SLEEP THEORY Some consider sleep to be a period of wasteful time. It is not wasteful time! Sleep is essential! During sleep the body mends itself. There are 5 different stages of sleep that are essential to your well being? Two of the most important sleep stages are: Deep sleep (Stage 4) and Rapid eye movements (REM Stage), often called, "Dream Stage." Stages and Cycles Sleep has a 90- to 120-minute periodic cycle Light (Stage 1), unconscious (Stage 2), deep (Stage 4), to REM Stage and back. Three to four cycles a night. Everyone has his own sleep habit or requirement, but everyone must have about 20 to 25% REM Stage and 20% Stage 4 (deep sleep) in a normal night of sleep. STAGES OF SLEEP REM Deep Sleep IMPORTANCE OF DEEP SLEEP Majority of "human growth hormone" (HGH) is released during the first Stage 4, occurs 45 minutes to 1 hour after falling asleep. for growth of new and old cells, repairs, removal of toxics (biological waste byproducts from cellular metabolism). Amount of deep sleep (Stage 4) increases with: an increase in physical activity, "physical activity increases metabolism." YOU NEED DEEP SLEEP! Did you know? That animals, as well as humans, can die from elevated levels of toxins produced by their bodies, if they are deprived of sleep for an extended period (2 weeks). YOU NEED DEEP (STAGE 4) SLEEP for growth, repairs, and removal of metabolic toxins for the brain. If human growth hormone (HGH) is not released metabolic toxins are retained, which reduced body's resistance to fight of infection or virus.
YOUR HEALTH WILL BE GOING DOWN! IF DEPREVATION OF DEEP If deprivation is continued for 7 to 10 days Human is altered psychologically Becomes depressed. This means that retention of metabolic toxins induces depression. Depression effects desired to succeed, thereby causing withdrawal from the "real world." world. The feeling of "fatigue" is constant and a craving fatigue for sleep and rest ensues. COUNSELING HELP IS NECESSARY! RAPID EYE MOVEMENTS (REM) STAGE REM Stage is also essential, The amount of REM increases with mental learning activities. It is postulated that the brain plays back events (perhaps in dreams) during REM Stage. We all dream even though, most of us can not recall our dreams. REM STAGE DEPREVATION Deprivation of REM Stage results in; Altered individual behavior From "no-sweat, easy-going" to an "aggressive, anxious, hypertensive" personality. Low tolerance to any stressful situation, blows up easily, aggressive behavior (verbal and physical), and erratic unfocused attention. COUNSELING HELP IS NECESSARY! DEFINITION OF FATIGUE
q Reflect inadequate rest displaced biological rhythms q Refer to symptoms associated with q Be interpreted as excessive muscular or physical activity q Result from excessive mental activity TYPES OF FATIGUE
ACUTE FATIGUE a) Produced by physical exertion or b) Sleep loss CHRONIC FATIGUE a) Medical or psychological problem b) Depression or "chronic fatigue syndrome" c) Narcolepsy (sleep disorder) OPERATIONAL FATIGUE a) Often caused by sleep loss and circadian desynchronization b) Often caused by continuous or sustained operations c) Most commonly seen after 3-4 days of heavy tasking SKILLS EASILY DEGRADED BY THE "INSIDIOUS EFFECTS OF FATIGUE"
q q Judgment Situation awareness q Spatial disorientation
q Staying awake EFFECTS OF FATIGUE AND SLEEP LOSS ON "FLIGHT CREW PERFORMANCE"
Increased reaction time leads to: 1) Timing errors in response sequences 2) Less smooth control Reduced attention leads to: 1) Preoccupation with single tasks or elements 2) Reduced audiovisual scan Diminished memory leads to: 1) Forget peripheral tasks 2) Revert to "old" habit patterns Withdrawn mood leads to: 1) Less likely to converse 2) Less likely to perform low-demand tasks MY RECOMMENDATION Schedule and get your regular amount of sleep every night including weekends! "Don't rob Peter to pay Paul"
This means: "Don't stay up later, cramming for an exam" Health If you are in good health you: Tackle your study goals in much less time Feel more confident about your abilities to overcome the obstacles in your path. If you're not in good health, then It will take you longer to reach your study goals Requires more energy and resources to reach your study goals, and You'll also make more mistakes. How to Stay Healthy GET ENOUGH SLEEP EAT RIGHT EXERCISE REDUCE STRESS Although you might catch a cold, you can stop yourself from becoming so tired that your performance drops and you fall behind in your schoolwork. Feeling Pooped Out (So Tired) The key: Discipline yourself and manage your time correctly. It's a proven fact:
"The less sleep you get, the less productive you are." Just as too little sleep can make you less productive, so also can too much sleep. If you get more sleep than your body needs, you'll feel run down all day. "Don't let the bag monster get you!" Good Nutrition The campus food service offer a variety of healthy and nutritious meals The problem is eating the right things Avoid large quantities of sugar, which give a burst of energy, are full of calories, not very nutritious, leaves sluggish feeling after body has burned them Eating Right People do have to discipline themselves to eat Many skip meals because they are too busy They miss out on an essential part of health, "Providing the body with necessary vitamins and minerals need to keep up with schedule." It may be hard to get up in the morning Never skip breakfast! "Breakfast is the most important meal of the Continuation If you have to skip a meal during the day, Make sure it is lunch. Be aware that, if you do eat lunch, A "large" meal can cause Drowsy feeling afterwards Large amounts of blood in your body are diverted to your stomach to aid in digestion, So the natural inclination is to take a nap. Avoid turkey with "tryptophan" Exercise Increases endurance and alertness Better able to handle stressful situations Helps in maintaining your sleeping pattern Exercising on a regular schedule When exercising, make it something you enjoy Stress Stress comes from having Too many responsibilities, Not enough time nor Resources to do all of them efficiently and properly. No matter how hard you try avoid stress There will be stressful times during your college career. "The best way to prevent stressful situations is through proper management of your time." Preconditions FACTS and FICTION Class schedule ABOUT LEARNING Study schedule Study environment Health Learning THE KEY TO SUCCESS My Thoughts on Learning Theory Too many students have illusions about what constitutes the learning process. I have heard many students say, "He didn't teach me anything". What this really means is: "Dad, I didn't do well in his class, because he doesn't know how to teach." Profs response: "I can lead the horse to water, but I can't make him drink." Learning Theory (Continuation) Did you come to college to learn? If so, drop the notion that: You, the student, are a "sponge" and the professor is the "fountain of knowledge" where the students are "showered and enlightened" as knowledge flows from the radiant verbiage of the professor to an awaiting spongy brain to be "soaked-up, retained", and recalled forever. LEARNING IS DIFFICULT, REPETITIVE WORK! The Real Physiology of Learning Growth of Cortical Neurons Learning takes place in the cortical region of the brain, which is made up of over 2 trillion (2x1012) neurons or nerve cells. What takes place in the brain is growth of the synaptic areas of the neurons which determine the pathway of a particular pattern of code. Cellular growth requires "ribonucleic acid (RNA) which must be produced by the body, if the raw materials (from foods) are available. Very technically deep, Hmm? EXERCISE Did you play sports? Did you have to attend regular practices? WHY? To learn how to ... ??? ... Take 2-minutes to write 3 reasons why you practiced your sport! Why did you practice? To Learn to: do some task or to improve your athletic skills so you could compete against another team? In reality, you practiced so you could better develop or facilitate neural pathways required in your athletic endeavors. In fact, you spent a lot of time practicing (weeks or months) the same basic drills over and over again, for one game each week. "Developing Neural Pathways!" Pathways SINGLE LARGE DOSE: WHY NOT ? Why didn't you practice "only" the night before a major competition? Oops, "Dumb question"? Yet, this is exactly what students do in their academic endeavors, "CRAM " all night before an exam, and "Fail ". Let's Summarize. You learn through repetition, Constantly reviewing, and Self testing Neural pathways in your brain are developed or facilitated. The prof is a guide or mentor "NOT A TORMENTOR" "LEARNING IS HARD WORK!" "You can lead the horse to water, but you can't make him drink." REMEMBER TIME MANAGEMENT
OF YOUR TIME MANAGEMENT ACADEMIC LIFE SUCCESS, BETTER GRADES, GRADUATION ...
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- Spring '08