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inst12 2 - First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics Class...

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First and Second Laws of  Thermodynamics Class 12.2
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2 RAT 1
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3 Class Objectives Understand and apply: work, energy, reversibility, heat capacity First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics
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4 Reversibility Reversibility  is the ability to run a  process backwards and forwards  infinitely without losses.
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5 Reversible Irreversible (no service fee) (5% service fee) Day Dollars Pounds Dollars Pounds Monday 100.00 40.00 100.00 38.00 Tuesday 100.00 40.00 90.25 34.30 Wednesday 100.00 40.00 81.45 30.95 Thursday 100.00 40.00 73.51 27.93 Friday 100.00 40.00 66.34 25.20 Each morning, dollars are converted to pounds. Each evening, pounds are converted to dollars. Money analogy
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6 Using Excel, reproduce the previous table, except use a service charge of 10%. Pair Exercise 1
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7 Reversibility and Energy If  irreversibilities  were eliminated, these  systems would run forever. Perpetual motion machines Electric Current Generator Motor Voltage Pump Turbine Fluid Flow Pressure
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8 Example: Popping a Balloon A “reversible process” can go in either  direction, but these processes are rare. Generally, the irreversibility shows up  as waste heat Not reversible unless energy is expended X Not reversible without expending energy
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9 Sources of Irreversibilities Friction Voltage drops Pressure drops Temperature drops Concentration drops
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10 Basic Laws of  Thermodynamics First Law of Thermodynamics energy can neither be created nor  destroyed Second Law of Thermodynamics naturally occurring processes are  directional
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