Unformatted text preview: Gender & Achievement
Chapter 6 Individual Difference Factors Self-Confidence Women more likely to underestimate abilities and less likely than men to expect success If expect not to succeed , will choose easier task, give up more easily on task and pursue activities in other domains Women's lower levels of confidence depend on: Nature of the task Ambiguity of feedback Social cues Self-Confidence Women's lower levels of confidence depend on: Nature of the task Women are less confident on performance of "masculine" tasks Women are equally or more confident on "feminine" tasks Ambiguity of feedback Women have lower expectancies when given ambiguous or no feedback Women less self-confident when they think their work will be compared to others or evaluated by others Social cues Self-Confidence Not self-confidence but just concern about others (other-focus) Ex: Women estimate lower GPA's than men in public condition Women believed other women felt better and like them more when making modest disclosure about a grade/performance Men felt women would like them better if they made an immodest disclosure (not true disclosure)ex. (It was really really good instead of just good) Self-Confidence Women's under confidence or Men's overconfidence? Men and women both overconfident Women's confidence levels more closely tied to actual performance Men: Overconfident in masculine tasks Women: underconfident in masculine tasks Both accurate in feminine tasks Responses to Evaluative Feedback Women's thoughts about themselves more influenced by feedback from others Men more influenced by positive feedback Women found negative feedback to be more informative Women's confidence changed in direction of feedback Men unaffected Women less satisfied after negative feedback Fell feedback is more informative about their abilities Limitations Responses to Evaluative Feedback Study of Bank Employees (Johnson and Helgeson 2002) Women's self-esteem: After positive feedback: Improved slightly After negative feedback Declined greatly after negative feedback Women take evaluative process more seriously, viewing feedback as more accurate and sources as credible Men protected self-esteem by putting down source of feedback and the feedback system Men's self esteem doesn't change wether its ve or +ve Self-Esteem Girls' have lower self-esteem African American girls have less decline in selfesteem over adolescence Some research indicates that girls' & boys' selfesteem decreases during early adolescence Meta-analysis of self-esteem changes in adolescence (Cambron, 2006) No gender differences in self-esteem change over each grade Boys report higher self-esteem than girls starting in 6th grade, continuing throughout adolescence Yes there is a difference in self esteem but not a lot!!! Self-Esteem Reasons girls have lower self-esteem Less favorable attitudes toward their gender role Girls' greater emphasis on popularity & increased contact with the other sex Leads to fragile self- esteem Changing physical appearance & girls becoming dissatisfied with their appearance Girls have less favorable body image, particularly at onset of puberty More strongly linked to overall self-esteem for girls African-american girls more satisfied with their appearance and attach less importance to physical appearance Self-Esteem Gender-Role & Self-Esteem Masculinity (agency) strongly positively associated with selfesteem Also associated with physical abilites and problem solving Femininity (communion) not related to global self-esteem
Related to social aspects of selfesteem and domains of honesty, religion and parental relationships Sources of Self-Esteem Cross & Madsen: men & women derive self-esteem from different sources Men: independent self-construals Self-esteem depends on agentic sources Women: relational- interdependent selfconstruals Self-esteem depends on communal sources Baumeister & Summer argue there are 2 types of interdependence Relational- close relationships Collective- groups memberships and affiatation Stereotype Threat Women aware of the stereotype that they have less ability in "masculine" domains When made salient, pressure during performance increases & performance decreases Some findings Men and women of equal math ability women perform worse on difficult math exam When students are told that a math exam typically shows gender differences women perform worse than men Women perform as well as men when not told test typically shows no gender differences Stereotype Threat Stereotypical v. counterstereotypical commercials (spreading of activation) Shown four neutral commercials and either 2 stereotypical or 2 counterstereotypical commercials Excited with an acne product= stereo Auto engineering by a lady= counterstereo When exposed to stereotypical commercials, women perform worse on a math test When exposed to counterstereotypical commercials, women and men perform equally well Stereotype Threat Activation of stereotype has been shown to decrease interest in math activities
Neutral v. stereotypical commercials Men: more interest in quantitative domains than verbal domains regardless of condition Women: Significantly more interest in verbal than quant domains in stereotypical condition Those exposed to neutral commercials showed significantly more interest in math domains and significantly less interest in verbal domains than women exposed to stereotypical commercials How stereotype threat affects women Increased arousal during difficult task, which hurts performance Attributions for Performance Attribution - cause that we assign an event Internal v. external (When someone screams- internal- she is crazy- external = she must have had a bad day Stable v. unstable (stable= keeps happening over time, unstable= fluke) Failure Internal low self-esteem External preserve self-esteem Stable give up Unstable try harder Success Internal high-self esteem External doesn't confer self esteem Stable continue on Unstable exert same effort Attributions for Performance Deaux (1984) model Attribute stable and internal causes if it matches our expectancy Attribute unstable causes if it doesn't Men attribute success on masculine task to ability (stable) and failure to lack of effort and bad luck (unstable) Women attribute success on masculine task to effort (unstable) and failure to difficulty of task (stable) Feminine tasks- no difference Attributions for Performance Men exhibit greater self-serving bias Attribute success to ability and failure to lack of effort (more likely to try harder after failure) Women do the opposite (more likely to give up after failure) Study of failure feedback When task changed after 4 failures, girls expectations increased When experimenter changed after 4 failures, boys expectations increased Social Factors Expectancy/Value Model of Achievement Men's & women's achievement related choices are a function of their Expectations about performance and the value they attach to that area Predict engagement, persistence and performance in an activity Influenced by gender-role socialization & by experiences and interpretations of children Self-perception of ability is what's important If girls believe success in math is due to effort and boys believe its due to ability boys more likely to have success in future math activities Expectancy/Value Model of Achievement (con't) Support - Math: Boys believe they have higher math ability and have higher expectations for future math success Boys and girls said math more useful for boys Girls perceptions of math ability decrease with age they attach less value to math, and took less math courses. Competence beliefs (expectancies) linked to performance Value linked to pursuit of the domain Girls less likely to value a career that doesn't involve interactions with others Parental Influence Parental stereotypes:
Math ability lower & more difficult for girls Girls more competent in English Math and athletics less important Boys more competent in sports English less important Different parental expectations may lead to different experiences for boys & girls, which influences performance Parents that have greater stereotypes about men and women are more likely to convert these stereotypes into their beliefs about their individual sons and daughters Parental Influence Math: parents say talent more important Attribute boys' success to talent Attribute girls' success to effort Attribute failure for both to lack of effort However, more likely to see task as too difficult for girls Are girls putting in more effort? NO! Both girls and boys report same amount of studying How do parents effect children's beliefs and performance? Evidence suggests that parents beliefs about children ability more strongly influenced children's perception of their ability more than their actual grades. Teacher & School Influence: Elementary & Middle School Teachers more likely to name boys as their best students or those with the most potential Teachers more likely to name girls as students who excel in language or social skills Most likely to name boys as most skilled in math This can lead to different performances for boys and girls Study of 6th graders No differences in the start of the year...but by the end of the year there were gender differences Teacher & School Influence: Elementary & Middle School Teachers also respond differently to boys and girls in different areas: Criticism/Negative Positive feedback feedback Attention Answering questions Content of their work Teacher & School Influence: Elementary & Middle School Boys receive more disapproval Criticism/Negative feedback: Girls: 70% academic-related Tend negative evaluations seriously Boys: 67% conduct or appearancerelated Maybe able to discount negative feedback Girls receive disproportionately more intellectual positive feedback than do boys More attention paid to a girl when she sits quietly in the front of the classroom Amount of attention paid to a boy is high regardless of where he sits Teacher & School Influence: Elementary & Middle School Teachers call on boys as often as 8 times more than girls Boys given more time to answer questions, receive more praise, constructive criticism, or encouragement to discover the right answer When girls answer, more likely to receive a simple acceptance from the teacher Boys tend to be praised for the intellectual content of their work Girls tend to be praised for the neatness and presentation of their work End result of socialization of children in elementary & middle school can have a significant impact on curricular preferences Teacher & School Influence: High School & College Same patterns of curricular preferences- Cross-cultural study More boys liked math & science More girls liked language arts & language-related courses Teachers pay more attention to their male students, give them more praise, ask them more questions and give them more feedback than females Gender differences in treatment of males and female students Attention Praise Asking questions Feedback Calling out answers Teacher & School Influence: High School & College Calling out answers: Boys tend to bot be penalized for calling out answers and taking risks Girls who do are reprimanded for being "rude" Favorite students: Assertive males liked the most, assertive females liked the least Boys dominate classroom interaction Talk and interrupt more than girls Teacher & School Influence: High School & College In HS, girls expected to feel comfortable competing against & outperforming boys Direct contradiction to message they receive about how to attract boys Conflicting messages: feminine- attract boys; masculine- academic success Boys socialized to develop only one set of traits, assertiveness, outspokenness, independence, competitiveness Works for both succeeding in school and succeeding socially with girls Teacher & School Influence: High School & College May explain some of gender differences in achievement motivations and beliefs Bright females more likely than males of equal ability to avoid challenge, to attribute their failure to inability, & to withdraw in the face of failure The brighter the female, the less likely she is to master task if she encounters initial problems solving task This pattern does not exist for males- boys more likely to master tests when they experience some initial confusion Teacher & School Influence: High School & College All-female schools v. public schools: Girls who attend all-female high schools & colleges tend to have: Higher educational aspirations Less stereotyped attitudes about women's roles Higher intellectual self-esteem And tend to be: More competitive More verbally assertive More interested in academics Teacher & School Influence: High School & College Men & women treated differently by college professors Instructors call on males more than females and tend to carry on longer, more scholarly discussions with male students Also give more nonverbal attention to men than women, including eye contact and waiting longer for men to answer Some faculty members use sexist humor to lighten the mood in the class Eventually, women in college classrooms may feel ignored & devalued, becoming invisible & unassertive ...
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- Spring '08