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Presentation_4 - Sex-Related Comparisons: Observations...

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Sex-Related Comparisons: Observations Chapter 4
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SEX COMPARISONS: COGNITIVE ABILITIES
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Spatial Ability Men outperform female on spatial perception tasks, mental rotation tasks, and spatial visualization tasks Men are also consistently better at aiming at a target than female (Kimura, 1999) Female perform higher than Men in spatial location memory One conclusion: men are better at manipulating objects in space: women are better at locating objects.
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Mathematical Ability 2 Meta-analysis Sex difference in math are small between m/f Results are different depending on age and specific skill Ex. Girls in elem. And middle school outperformed boys in math computation. Boys perform better on multiple choice and time tests. Implication for sat scores. Sex differences decreasing over time (Hyde et al, 1990) Sex differences in verbal ability first to emerge in childhood Where did stereotype come from? • Findings not generalize able to general population
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Verbal Ability Sex differences in VA to emerge in childhood Girls talk earlier, & develop larger A lot of these diffs decreases over time All effects small except speech prudtion Over time, sex differences decreased Large difference – writing Boys score higher on verbal part of SAT.
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SEX COMPARISONS: SOCIAL DOMAINS
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Helping Behavior Males help more than females (Eagly & Crowley,1986) Moderating variables present: Situations of danger • Sex of person needing help Males more likely to help females than males. Females equally likely to help males and females Women more likely to receive help from men than women Men equally likely to receive help from men and women • Public v Private • Publication year • Types of help Department store, Dependency norms, Social support Being helped reduces self-esteem Limitations • Experiment vs. “real world”
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Helping Behavior Cont. Men Helped 2X as often in dept. store – Why
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Presentation_4 - Sex-Related Comparisons: Observations...

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