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Presentation_5 - Theories of Gender Development BIOLOGY:...

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Theories of Gender Development
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BIOLOGY: GENES Twin Studies (MZ vs. DZ) Genes explain 22-40% and environment explains 60-80% of gender differences Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome XY chromosome, female genitalia, raised as females No differences in gender-related behavior or personality traits
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BIOLOGY: HORMONES Very little evidence prenatal exposure to sex hormones influences cognitive abilities Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) Genetic disorder – results in prenatal exposure to high levels of hormones Testosterone leads to increased spatial ability in girls However, testosterone leads to decreased spatial ability in boys
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BIOLOGY: THE BRAIN Effect of brain damage Men: damage to right affected spatial abilities; damage to the left affected language abilities Women: No distinct effects Some evidence indicates men’s brains are more lateralized than women’s However, evidence not conclusive
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EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY Extension of Darwin’s theory of evolution We behave in ways to ensure survival of our genes Different behaviors may have evolved in men & women because it was adaptive for their survival Sexual Behavior Sexual Strategies Theory (Buss, 1995) Men and women face different obstacles during pregnancy Men: Establishing paternity Women: Safely getting through 9 months of pregnancy and a period afterword. Men and women face different challenges during sexual reproduction Men: Best interest to mate with as many women as possible & to mate with fertile women Women: best interest to be selective – Women less likely to engage in promiscuous sex
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EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY Mate Selection Study of 37 countries Women’s preferences Preference doesn’t diminish in women with their own resources. Jealousy
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Presentation_5 - Theories of Gender Development BIOLOGY:...

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