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Ch. 13 - The Victorian Notes - 2-16-09

Ch. 13 - The Victorian Notes - 2-16-09 - CHAPTER 13 THE...

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CHAPTER 13 — THE INDUSTRIAL AGE: THE SPIRIT OF MATERIALISM THE VICTORIANS A. Technological advances a. Telegraph cable, sanitation, vaccinations, electricity b. The Crystal Palace - an iron glass construction which resembled a monumental green house, (pre-fabricated) B. Philosophy and biology a. Utilitarianism —a moral philosophy that evaluated all actions against a single standard of judgment.—the greatest pleasure for the greatest number— Jeremy Bentham “God had nothing to do with happiness” This secular hedonism appealed to the Victorian practicality. b. John Stuart Mills —Proposed women’s rights like the vote. He too felt actions are right if they promote happiness. c. Charles Darwin . His concept of natural selection aroused a firestorm in religious groups. Humans have evolved naturally from lower animals according to mutation and how well their species survived in nature or adapted. All species are involved in “the struggle for life”. C. Realism in the arts a. Courbet— Burial at Ornans His work was attacked. It was carelessly composed and had no heroism. All mourners were crowded around the grave, no social hierarchy priest, pallbearers, the beadle looks flushed with being drunk. b. Edouard Manet Luncheon on the Grass —Shocked people with his nude female and clothed men in a contemporary setting. But also, begins to use some of the impressionistic use of color and light in his The bar at the Follies-Bergere which the younger painters were doing. He, as they did, showed the colorful life of the modern city c. Thomas Eakins (U.S.) The Gross Clinic —Careful observation of human anatomy as the doctor lectures. Notice used of light and dark, light like Rembrandt . d. New Photography— Daumier —showed the suffering of the poor and current events. Brady U.S. –the Civil War. D. The Realist novel a. Charles Dickens —outspoken about the social evils of the 19 th century. England and he understood what he was writing about, His father had been in debtors prison. He was famous at 24 . His novels often appeared in installments. David Copperfield —people could not wait to get the next one, Well to do or not—he never forgot about the miseries of industrial life. b. Gustave Flaubert —Grew up in comfortable upper middle-class. Novel: Madame Bovary —naïve woman who was overwhelmed by the sophistication of the modern world. Led to adultery, debt, suicide. He stood trail for obscenity in his novel. He also wrote a book about the different uprising in Paris and came to the conclusion that utopian dreams for all were a nightmare –rich or poor.
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