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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13 Book Notes The Industrial Age: The Spirit of Materialism Materialism the belief that science, technology, and industry can know all t ruth, solve all problems, and create human happiness. Age of I ndustry when modernity prevailed in Western civilization and brought astounding material progress MATER IAL ISM AND PROGRESS Victorian Era hailed the ages material prosperity and prized the values of utilitarianism Utilitarianism the philosophic belief that moral good lies in the greatest happiness for the greatest number. T HE V ICTOR IANS Victorians a term best applied to the burgeoning middle classes of the new industrial cities that witnessed rising standards of living and stunning technological advances. Programs of sanitation were implemented to eradicate disease. By the end of the century, water-powered electrical plants were providing electricity PAXTON o Created the Crystal Palace o He was a former gardener that employed new methods of iron and glass construction in his design which resembled monumental greenhouse. Constructed in less than 10 months. o Like a cathedral of materialism Utilitarianism a moral philosophy that evaluated all actions against a single standard of judgmentthe greatest pleasure for the greatest number. o They argued that the good consisted in the pleasure and well-being of humans. o Founder was Bentham who argues that happiness promised by social reforms could be positively and empirically measured. o John Stuart Mill advocated womens right to vote and other social reforms based on their utility to society. On Liberty and The Subjection of Women , Mill defended social justice by a rigorous but flexible utilitarian standard. o Charles Dar win published the Origin of Species which challenged the Judaic and Christian teachings on humanities origins. Argues that humans had evolved naturally from lower animals, according to mutation and natural selection (only the fittest survive) REAL ISM I N T HE ARTS Realism aimed to give a truthful and objective representation of the social world, without illusion or imaginative alteration. Courbet French artist whose scenes of ordinary provincial life outraged the Parisian art public o Declared boldly that a painting can only consist of the presentation of real and existing things. o Burial at Ornans the Paris connoisseurs were scandalized. Considered the picture to be carelessly composed. No regard to social hierarchy MANET controversial painter o Updated traditional painting with modern subjects in ways that scandalized the French art world. o Luncheon on the Grass roused greater official outrage than Courbets Burial on the Ornans . Paris public was shocked by the nude female and clothed men in contemporary setting. o Impressionists o Bar at the Folies Bergere reflects the impressionist treatment of light and color....
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- Spring '08