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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14 The Spirit of Modernism A TURBULENT CENTURY Spirit of modernism the aggressive style of 1900-1950 that demolished tired cultural traditions and defined a bewildering future for the 20 th century. A New Science Albert Einstein : o Proposed a special theory of relativity that held that time and mass were relative to the observers frame of reference. B/c the speed of light was constant, everything else must be changeable in relation to speed of light o Proposed space-time in which his general theory of relativity explained it. o Created quantum mechanics to physics. An atoms electrons could not be measured or plotted precisely. Quantum mechanics concluded at the sub-atomic level, the universe is probabilistic that is, calculable according to statistical likelihood. o I shall never believe that God plays dice with the world The Great War World War I changed many lives; it was the first industrialized world conflict. Showed how effective the western societies could mobilize huge armies and kill others for pointless conflict. Barbed wire and rapid-fire machine guns made troop entrenchments impregnable. Poison gas(German and Britain), tank, and the airplane were all used. Offensive assaults on trench line were was lethal as they were ineffective. The Russian Revolution Bolsheviks-Russian Social Democratic Party overthrew a temporary government and established the first sot state in Europe. Led by V.I. Lenin who applied Marxian som. Joseph Stalin was Lenins successor. Stalin increased the steel production by five-fold in one decade. Many suffered and died and put in prison camps. Agit-prop troupes who carried the revolutionary message to Russian villages(agitation propaganda) Vladimir Tatlin model for Monument to the Third I nternational (spiral shaped slanted building) Fascism and the Rise of Mass Society Anti-communist reactions spawned Fascism , which was just as bad and fatal Fascism prized nation and race above all individual rights, and typically used government power to regiment social life and suppress opposition This is where the Nazi Party and Adolf H itler originated. 1933 Nazis took power they were good at simplified slogans and potent symbolism. Many artists left when Nazis took power b/c they burnt works of well known intellectuals. Art of commercial filmmaking establish in Hollywood, California creating movies with good storylines FDR created The New Deal . Documentary arts recorded social conditions directly and objectively. Documentary Photographs by Margaret Bourke- White, Walker Evans , and Dorothea Lange illustrated the hardships of the rural and urban poor....
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