Chapter 14 The Spirit of Modernity

Chapter 14 The Spirit of Modernity - Chapter 14 - The...

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Chapter 14 — The Spirit of Modernity A TURBULENT CENTURY 1. A NEW SCIENCE ALBERT EINSTEIN a. 1905 Theory of Relativity —held that time and mass were relative to the observers frame of reference because the speed of light was constant and everything else must be changeable in relation to the speed of light.(read ex pg. 384) b. 1918 Newton’s Theory of Gravity applied still, but not to large objects like the sun. Thus the sun affected even distant objects like plants. c. Quantum mechanics —sub-atomic particles behave at times like particles of matter and at other times like light energy moving in waves. This meant that atomic particles could not be plotted precisely. So there is probability in calculation. Einstein “I shall never believe God plays dice with the world” 2. THE GREAT WAR a. 1914— WWI —First industrialized war using rapid fire machine guns, poison gas, and the tank. The airplanes bombarded the trenches and were lethal and effective. b. Battle of the Somme —1916—both sides lost more than a million people 3. THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION a. The Bolshevik Revolution –1917—led by Lenin and it established the first socialist state in Europe but concentrated power in old Czarist leaders b. Stalin —massive industrialization, but along with this came massive suffering. Collective farming caused mass starvation and death in prison camps. Over twenty million died c. At first there was much creativity, but then communism bore down and realistic propaganda was the only way so creative Russians fled the scene or ended up in prison camp. 4. FACISM a. Adolf Hitler’s Nazi’s took power in 1933. Anti communist and anti-Semitic. b. Hitler was the skillful orator. He charmed German’s and built up national pride. He especially used mass media 5. MASS SOCIETY – PHOTOGRAPHY a. Hollywood comes into being b. Alfred Stieglitz —father of modern photography—the straight shot—no manipulation just capture the visual truth c. Documentary arts . From The “New Deal” and when FDR sent photographers to document poverty, Dorothy Lange (pg.386) d. By 1940, we have film, photography and TV that soon overshadowed traditional forms of artistic expression e. Photography —war, portraits, photo-reporters ,fashion, nudes, science, artistic, Hollywood and the paparazzi POST-MODERNISM IN PHOTOGRAPHY 1. Cindy Sherman —addressed the image of women in traditional Western Art shaped by male needs. Sweetness, sexiness, and servility used art to attack gender. The modern day phenomena of “ garlic ” magazines- and other mass media. She mocks the baby doll, the “pin-up ”, the love struck teenager, most often uses herself as the model 2. Barbara Kruger –creates photographs that unite word and image to resemble billboards. “ your body is your battleground” superimposing the message over the face. Attacks the issue of abortion (ex. Time square) 3. Robert Mapplethorpe —sexual identity, creative achievements, pristine subjects, classical posed nudes, physical
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Chapter 14 The Spirit of Modernity - Chapter 14 - The...

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