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Unformatted text preview: Responses to Industrialization Iron Horse Transportation Revolution Iron horse epitomizes technology and transportation railroads - worlds frst big business combined applied technology with mass production frst developed in England - mid 1700s frst railroad - 1800 applied steam power - brought new Form oF transportation water transportation had previously been dominant railroad industry demanded eFfcient transportation oF goods and passengers Railroads were frst big business in Britain and US 1840s - US adopted railroads 1849 - 250 miles oF track SpinoFF industries stimulated other industries, such as iron and steel machinery industry also emerged railroads required precision that was never needed beFore - high tech industry Iron and steel spinoFFs - iron and steel had never been needed in mass quantities beFore railroads Bessemer process, London Smog developed Bessemer process For iron and steel made machine that blew air through molten pig iron (3.8% carbon), resulting in steel (0.4% carbon) steel was much stronger than pig iron better rails, wheels, locomotives, etc. Englands steel mills/textile mills/homes burned mass quantities oF coal resulted in terrible air pollution - proved deadly to many londoners known as London Killer Smog diesel and electric eventually replaced coal burning Proft, management, time zones owners had to fnd ways early on to maximize profts huge capital investment that no individual Fortune could fnance RR companies needed more employees - frst large-scale business structures in US and Britain developed hierarchal management within the industry In order to maximize profts, they developed cost accounting (needed to see where every penny was going) made traFfc and transportation departments (how to get passengers/Freight From one place to destination) invented time zones - previous time setting system was not eFfcient enough time zones For the entire world were created - standardized...
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- Spring '08