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Unformatted text preview: Person Contribution Francisco Redi Experiments with fies and meat Concluded that lie only originates rom lie Louis Pasteur Swan-neck fask experiment Concluded that microorganisms come only rom other microorganisms, not rom non-living environment - disproved theory o spontaneous generation Industrial microbiology Pasteurization Got microbes into culture Worked on theory and practice o vaccination Proved that microbes were responsible or biodegradation Dierent microbes produce dierent products Oparin and Haldane Reducing atmosphere hypothesis Thomas Cech Discovered ribozymes - catalytic RNA olding H bonds stabilize in 3-D orm Carolus Linnaeus Linnaean ranks - each species name is in Latin and has 2 parts: genus and specic name (traditional taxonomy) Carl Woese Autoradiographed gene sequences Concluded that microbes occupy all three o the main domains o lie (based on 16s or 18s rRNA gene sequences Van Leeuwenhoek Used crude microscope Was the rst to observe bacteria and protists Robert Koch Contributed to medical microbiology Germ theory - one should be able to isolate microbe present in inected organisms, inoculate healthy organism, then match back to rst microbe Developed pure culture technique Alexander Flemming Studied microbe-microbe interactions (real-world microbe interactions) - would contaminate equipment either by mistake or on purpose Discovered Penicillin Sergei Winogradsky Environmental microbiology Developed rst ideas o chemolithotrophy - organisms obtain their energy rom the oxidation o inorganic compounds and use CO2 as carbon source They are autotrophs Martinus Beijerinck Environmental microbiology Discovered enrichment cultures Some microbes are nitrogen xers who use N2 gas as their nitrogen source Kary Mullis Discovered PCR reaction processes Nobel prize in Chemistry in 1993 Thomas Brock and Hudson Freeze Discovered heat-stable (taq) polymerase (thermus aquaticus) in hot springs Norm Pace Used cultivation independent techniques 16S rRNA gene clone library construction Transormed plasmids into E. coli Craig Venter Used a random shotgun sequencing approach to close the Human Genome Project Attempted to transorm one organism into another EEMB 3: Diversity of Life Origin of Life on Earth Hypothesis I: Extraterrestrial origin - Panspermia Life may not be unique to earth Hypothesis II: Chemical Evolution Four overlapping stages: 1. Nucleotides and amino acids before cells a. Extraterrestrial input hypothesis b. Reducing atmosphere hypothesis (little or no O2) c. Hydrothermal vent hypothesis (energy for reduction - sulfur) 2. Nucleotides and AA polymerize (DNA, RNA, and proteins) How? Condensation reactions- solid mineral surfaces- hydrothermal vents- hot pools 3. Polymers enclosed in membranes Protobionts 4. Evolution of cellular properties Phylogenetic Tree Paraphyletic Group - includes the common ancestor and some, but not all, of the ancestors descendants Polyphyletic Group - does not include the common ancestor of the group...
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This note was uploaded on 09/01/2009 for the course EEMB EEMB 3 taught by Professor Geller during the Spring '09 term at UCSB.
- Spring '09