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studyguide1 - EEMB 3 Diversity of Life Person Francisco...

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Person Contribution Francisco Redi Experiments with flies and meat Concluded that life only originates from life Louis Pasteur Swan-neck flask experiment Concluded that microorganisms come only from other microorganisms, not from non-living environment - disproved theory of spontaneous generation Industrial microbiology Pasteurization Got microbes into culture Worked on theory and practice of vaccination Proved that microbes were responsible for biodegradation Different microbes produce different products Oparin and Haldane Reducing atmosphere hypothesis Thomas Cech Discovered ribozymes - catalytic RNA folding H bonds stabilize in 3-D form Carolus Linnaeus Linnaean ranks - each species name is in Latin and has 2 parts: genus and specific name (traditional taxonomy) Carl Woese Autoradiographed gene sequences Concluded that microbes occupy all three of the main domains of life (based on 16s or 18s rRNA gene sequences Van Leeuwenhoek Used crude microscope Was the first to observe bacteria and protists Robert Koch Contributed to medical microbiology Germ theory - one should be able to isolate microbe present in infected organisms, inoculate healthy organism, then match back to first microbe Developed pure culture technique Alexander Flemming Studied microbe-microbe interactions (real-world microbe interactions) - would contaminate equipment either by mistake or on purpose Discovered Penicillin Sergei Winogradsky Environmental microbiology Developed first ideas of chemolithotrophy - organisms obtain their energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds and use CO2 as carbon source They are autotrophs Martinus Beijerinck Environmental microbiology Discovered enrichment cultures Some microbes are nitrogen fixers who use N2 gas as their nitrogen source Kary Mullis Discovered PCR reaction processes Nobel prize in Chemistry in 1993 Thomas Brock and Hudson Freeze Discovered heat-stable (taq) polymerase (thermus aquaticus) in hot springs Norm Pace Used cultivation independent techniques 16S rRNA gene clone library construction Transformed plasmids into E. coli Craig Venter Used a random shotgun sequencing approach to close the Human Genome Project Attempted to transform one organism into another EEMB 3: Diversity of Life
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Origin of Life on Earth Hypothesis I: Extraterrestrial origin - Panspermia Life may not be unique to earth Hypothesis II: Chemical Evolution Four overlapping stages: 1. Nucleotides and amino acids before cells a. Extraterrestrial input hypothesis b. Reducing atmosphere hypothesis (little or no O2) c. Hydrothermal vent hypothesis (energy for reduction - sulfur) 2. Nucleotides and AA polymerize (DNA, RNA, and proteins) How? Condensation reactions - solid mineral surfaces - hydrothermal vents - hot pools 3. Polymers enclosed in membranes Protobionts 4. Evolution of cellular properties
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