MIPS1 - CoE ECE 0142 Computer Organization Instructions...

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1 Instructions: Language of the Computer CoE - ECE 0142 Computer Organization
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2 The Stored Program Concept ± It is the basic operating principle for every computer. ± It is so common that it is taken for granted. ± Without it, every instruction would have to be initiated manually. The stored program concept says that the program is stored with data in the computer’s memory. The computer is able to manipulate it as data—for example, to load it from disk, move it in memory, and store it back on disk.
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3 The Fetch-Execute Cycle Fig. 1.2
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4 Machine, Processor, and Memory State ± The Machine State : contents of all registers in system, accessible to programmer or not ± The Processor State : registers internal to the CPU ± The Memory State : contents in the memory system ± “State” is used in the formal finite state machine sense ± Maintaining or restoring the machine and processor state is important to many operations, especially procedure calls and interrupts
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5 Instruction set architecture (ISA) Software Hardware ISA
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6 MIPS ± In this class, we’ll use the MIPS instruction set architecture (ISA) to illustrate concepts in assembly language and machine organization Of course, the concepts are not MIPS-specific MIPS is just convenient because it is real, yet simple (unlike x86) ± The MIPS ISA is still used in many places today. Primarily in embedded systems, like: Various routers from Cisco Game machines like the Nintendo 64 and Sony Playstation 2 ± You must become “fluent” in MIPS assembly: Translate from C to MIPS and MIPS to C
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7 MIPS: register-to-register, three address ± MIPS is a register-to-register , or load/store , architecture. The destination and sources must all be registers. Special instructions, which we’ll see later, are needed to access main memory. ± MIPS uses three-address instructions for data manipulation. Each ALU instruction contains a destination and two sources . For example, an addition instruction (a = b + c) has the form: add a , b, c operation destination sources operands
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8 MIPS register names ± MIPS register names begin with a $. There are two naming conventions: By number: $0 $1 $2 $31 By (mostly) two-character names, such as: $a0-$a3 $s0-$s7 $t0-$t9 $sp $ra ± Not all of the registers are equivalent: E.g., register $0 or $zero always contains the value 0 • (go ahead, try to change it) ± Other registers have special uses, by convention: E.g., register $sp is used to hold the “stack pointer” ± You have to be a little careful in picking registers for your programs.
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This note was uploaded on 09/01/2009 for the course COE 0142 taught by Professor Staff during the Summer '08 term at Pittsburgh.

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MIPS1 - CoE ECE 0142 Computer Organization Instructions...

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