Lec 1 - BL/CH401 Lecture 2 Cell Structure and Biochemistry...

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BL/CH401 Lecture 2 -- Cell Structure and Biochemistry Cell Structure of Prokaryotes (Bacteria) and Eukaryotes (Higher Organisms) Prokaryotes - Single cells without nucleus or other organelles Eukaryotes - Multicellular- Nucleus, mitochondria, etc. Bacteria - Single Chromosome - Sometimes Plasmid or Episomal DNA Animals - Chromosomes in nucleus - Cytoplasmic DNA in mitochondria Plants - Chromosomes in nucleus - Cytoplasmic DNA in mitochondria and chloroplasts Before looking into the components of these cellular types, a foundation in some generally important concepts applying to all cells must be established. The "BASICS" of DNA (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid) and RNA (RiboNucleic Acid) ---------------------------------------------------------- DNA is genetic material of most living systems, including eukaryotes and prokaryotes Double Stranded DNA - Only Natural Form Chromosomes of Eukaroytes and Prokaroytes are double stranded DNA ---------------------------------------------------------- RNA is Single Stranded RNA is Genetic Material in Some Viruses RNA comes in 3 basic forms: tRNA (transfer RNA) = adapter in protein synthesis - matches codon to amino acid rRNA (ribosomal RNA) = structural RNA in ribosomes mRNA (messenger RNA) = contains information for protein synthesis
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Basics of the relationship between proteins and DNA: Figure 1. Linear relationship between DNA, RNA and Protein Sequence (This Figure from unknown source, ©19?? Geis) DNA encodes amino acids of a protein using 3 letter codons. DNA is transcribed to make mRNA.
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Lec 1 - BL/CH401 Lecture 2 Cell Structure and Biochemistry...

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