lecture35 - Genetics of Cancer Lecture 35 Alterations in...

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Genetics of Cancer Lecture 35
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Alterations in different kinds of Genes cause Cancer Oncogenes dominant gain-of-function mutations promote cell transformation Tumor suppressor genes recessive, loss-of-function mutations promote cell transformation Mutator genes Usually recessive, loss-of-function mutations that increase spontaneous and environmentally induced mutation rates
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What chromosomal events convert proto- oncogenes to dominantly acting oncogenes • Point mutations (e.g., RAS) • Partial deletion mutations (e.g., RTKs) •Chromosomal translocations that produce novel fusion proteins (e.g., Bcr-Abl) • Chromosomal translocation to juxtapose a strong promoter upstream and the proto- oncogene such that it is inappropriately expressed (e.g., cMyc, Bcl2) • Gene amplification resulting in overexpression (e.g., N-Myc)
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Point Mutation Non-Disjunction Chromosome loss & duplication Chromosome loss Recombination Deletion Interchromosomal Recombination Gene Conversion Translocation Mutant Rb wt Rb LOH - Loss of heterozygosity
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Sunlight Pollution Oxidation Food Cigarette Smoke Courtesy of Professor Bevin P. Engelward. Used with permission.
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