chapter 16 - CHAPTER 16a Liquids and Solids LIQUIDS 1...

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1 CHAPTER 16a CHAPTER 16a – Liquids and Liquids and Solids z LIQUIDS 2 Kinetic-Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids • Schematic representation of the three common states of matter. gas liquid solid cool cool heat heat 3 Kinetic -Molecular Description Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids of Liquids and Solids z Immiscible liquids are insoluble in each other. z Two examples of immiscible liquids: z Water does not dissolve in oil. z Water does not dissolve in cyclohexane.
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4 Kinetic Kinetic -Molecular Description Molecular Description of Liquids and Solids z If we compare the strengths of interactions strengths of interactions among particles and the degree of ordering degree of ordering of particles, we see that Gases < Liquids < Solids z Miscible liquids Miscible liquids are soluble in each other. z Examples of miscible liquids: z Water dissolves in alcohol. z Polar solvent and polar solute z Gasoline dissolves in motor oil. z Nonpolar solvent and nonpolar solute 5 Intermolecular Forces in Liquids z For a liquid in an open container to boil, its vapor pressure must reach atmospheric pressure. z For some substances this occurs at temperatures well below zero; for example, oxygen has a boiling point of –183°C. z Other substances do not boil until the temperature is much higher. z Mercury, for example, has a boiling point of 357 °C, which is 540°C higher than that of oxygen. 6 Intermolecular Forces in Liquids Liquids z An explanation for this variation involves a consideration of the nature of the intermolecular forces that must be overcome in order for molecules to escape from the liquid state into the vapor state.
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7 Intermolecular Forces in Intermolecular Forces in Liquids z Intermolecular forces are the forces between molecules and formula units. z Much weaker attractions that occur between molecule-molecule of a covalent compound and ion-ion in a formula unit. z Intramolecular attractions are the forces between atoms in molecules and formula units z Covalent & Ionic 8 Intermolecular Forces in Liquids z The changes of state are caused by intermolecular interactions. z During a change of state, the molecules remain intact. z Gaseous water is composed of H 2 O molecules in a vapor state with high kinetic energies. z Liquid water is composed of H 2 O molecules that are held together by intermolecular forces with low kinetic energies. z Solid water is composed of H 2 O molecules that are held together by intermolecular forces with very low kinetic energies. 9 Intermolecular Forces in Liquids Liquids Intermolecular forces are similar in one way to intramolecular forces (between atoms) involved in covalent bonding. z They are electrostatic in origin. z A major difference between inter- and intramolecular forces is their magnitude; intermolecular forces are much weaker.
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This note was uploaded on 09/02/2009 for the course CH 301 taught by Professor Fakhreddine/lyon during the Fall '07 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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chapter 16 - CHAPTER 16a Liquids and Solids LIQUIDS 1...

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