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Unformatted text preview: AN I MAL BEHAVIOR LIFE 53 53.3.5 & 44.1 53.1 What do biologists ask about behavior?- ethology : the study of animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective-for many animals, much of their behavior are unlearned and highly stereotypic (i.e. always exactly the same) // stereotypic behavior is often species-specific 53.2 How do genes and environment interact to shape behavior?-An animal may fail to perform even a genetically controlled behavior if the environmental conditions needed to stimulate it are absent. Conversely, all individuals may behave in the same way not because of their genes but because they all imitated the same teacher- Genes do not encode behaviors. Rather, gene products such as enzymes can affect behavior by setting in motion a series of gene-environment interactions that underlie the development of proximate mechanisms that enable individuals to make certain behavioral responses 53.2.1 Experiments can distinguish between genetic and environmental influences on behavior-Two experimental approaches are especially useful to biologists in evaluating how genes and experience interact to shape behaviors: deprivation experiment : investigators rear a young animal so that it is deprived of all experience relevant to the behavior under study. If it still exhibits the behavior, we may assume that the behavior can develop without opportunities to learn it. genetic experiment : investigators alter the genomes of organisms by interbreeding closely related species , by comparing individuals that differ in only one or a few genes , or by knocking out or inserting specific genes to determine how these manipulations affect their behavior.-types of genetic experiments: Selective breeding : genetic manipulation used to select for both anatomical traits and behavior Interbreeding : hybridization Gene knockout experiments : inactivation 53.2.2 Genetic control of behavior is adaptive under many conditions-an innate or inherited behavior can give a higher chance of survival or reproductive...
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