Topic_5____Earths_Atmosphere_II

Topic_5____Earths_Atmosphere_II - Topic 5: Earth's...

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Topic 5: Earth's Atmosphere II Dynamics of the Atmosphere A. Drivers of atmospheric circulation a. Sun’s radiation b. Gravity c. Earth’s rotation and orbit B. Principles a. Hot air rises b. Wind is movement of air in response to pressure gradients c. Air streams, winds deflected by Earth’s rotation d. Hot air can hold more moisture than cold air e. Sun’s rays hit Earth more directly at low latitude f. Differential heating of land and oceans due to heat capacity differences C. Atmosphere dynamics and the causes of Earth’s seasons, climate and weather a. Temperature: By latitude and by time i. Solar insolation: Intensity varies with latitude due to changing footprint of energy flux ii. Intensity and duration of insolation determined by the tilt of the Earth b. What causes the seasons? i. Revolution of Earth around Sun 1. Elliptical orbit 2. Plane of the ecliptic 3. One revolution in 365.25 rotations (days)
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4. Perihelion (On Jan. 3, Earth is 91.5 million miles from Sun) 5. Aphelion (On July 4, Earth is 94.5 million miles from Sun) ii. Angle of inclination = 23.5 degrees 1. Rotation on axis in 24 hrs 2. Point on equator moves at a thousand miles per hour 3. Point near North Pole moves close to zero miles per hour iii. Summer Solstice in N. hemisphere on June 22 1. Axis tilted towards sun 2. Vertical rays incident on Tropic of Cancer (23.5 o N Lat.) iv. Winter Solstice, Fall and Spring Equinoxes v. Seasonal distribution of temperature at Earth’s surface (Fig. 3.7)
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vi. Latitudinal distribution of incoming solar and outgoing terrestrial radiation c. Atmospheric circulation and Earth’s rotation i. Circulation on a non-rotating Earth
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Topic_5____Earths_Atmosphere_II - Topic 5: Earth's...

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