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Topic_12___Hydrosphere_I - 3 Currents turn when barriers...

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Topic 12: The Hydrosphere and Cryosphere I: The Oceans I. How the oceans work Heated by the sun heat transfer climatic effects II. Surface Currents 1. 3 forces: a. Wind b. Coriolis Effect c. Pressure gradients 2. Wind Drag, Friction a. Waves b. Decrease in current speed with depth c. Coriolis Effect i. Deflection to right in N. hemisphere ii. Deflection to left in S. hemisphere d. Ekman Spiral i. Surface current deflected 20-45 ° ii. Deflection decreases with depth because of friction iii. Depth to 100 m iv. Net transport of water 90 ° away from wind direction = “Ekman Transport”
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3. Pressure Gradients a. Water elevation b. Land forms are barriers to ocean currents III. Resultant overall current patterns 1. Currents converge toward equator at ITCZ because of trade winds 2. Westward flow along equator: N and S Equatorial Currents
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Unformatted text preview: 3. Currents turn when barriers are encountered 4. Eastward flow enhanced by Westerlies 5. Effects: a. Distribution of warm water and climatic effects b. Upwelling of deep water away from continents to replace surface water IV. Deep Currents 1. Thermohaline-driven currents a. Greater salinity greater density b. Lower temperature greater density 2. Global Conveyor Belt 3. Balance of water pressure, density, and deflection by continents 4. 1000 years to complete cycle V. Tides A. Gravitational tug of moon and sun B. Tidal bulges on opposite side of earth C. Spring vs. neap tides D. Inertial forces cause tidal bulge on opposite side of Earth E. Tidal flow amplified and diminished by land and sea configuration...
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Topic_12___Hydrosphere_I - 3 Currents turn when barriers...

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