Topic_13___Hydrosphere_II

Topic_13___Hydrosphere_II - Topic 13: Hydrosphere and...

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Topic 13: Hydrosphere and Cryosphere II - Where Is the Water? I. Water lies in many different reservoirs A. Oceans (97.25%, covering 71% of planet Earth, with an average depth of 3.8 km) B. Ice caps and glaciers (2.05%) C. Groundwater (0.68%) D. Lakes (0.01%) E. Soils (0.005%) F. Atmosphere (0.001%) G. Rivers (0.0001%) H. Biosphere (0.00004%) II. Changes through time A. Earth has had a hydrosphere for at least 4 b.y.; Size and shape of the hydrosphere has changed through time B. Global sea level change a. Displace ment by mid- oceanic ridges b. Extent of ice caps: sea level would rise 80.4m if all ice melted
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c. Amount of water held on continen ts III. The water cycle A. Transfer of water through lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere hydrosphere and cryosphere B. Components 1. Solar heating -> evaporation (liquid -> vapor, using 23% of solar radiation that reaches Earth) 2. Condensation ->precipitation; releases heat to the atmosphere 3. Biosphere and subduction are missing from above diagram
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Topic_13___Hydrosphere_II - Topic 13: Hydrosphere and...

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