anth200feb4 - Tempo and Mode in Evolution Reductionism vs...

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ANTH 200 February 4, 2008 Individual vs. Group Selection - Individual Selection (Darwin 1859, GC Williams 1966): Animals DO NOT behave for the good of the group or the good of the species - apparent altruism is really just the byproduct of selfish behavior - Group selection (Wynne-Edwards, 1966): Animals actively behave in ways that help the group; e.g., when overpopulated, they limit their reproduction - lemmings, antelope. Levels of Selection - Proximate - How things work - - Ultimate - Why things are the way they are Sociobiology (Trivers/Wilson) Inclusive Fitness/Kin Selection - Inclusive Fitness - One's own fitness plus the fitness of one's close kin - Kin Selection - Coefficients of Relatedness: Parent-Offspring - 0.5 Siblings (Full) - 0.5 Aunt/Uncle/Niece/Nephew - 0.25 Grandparent-grandchild - 0.25 First cousin - 0.125 Examples: - Parent-offspring Conflict: - mother-fetus conflict - weaning conflict
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Unformatted text preview: Tempo and Mode in Evolution- Reductionism vs. Holism = Adaptationism examined- Gould and Eldredge - the Spandrels of SanMarcos- Angenesis vs c Darwinian gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium Linnean Nomenclature- Kingdom- Phylum (subphylum)- Class- Order (suborder)- Family (superfamily, subfamily)- Genus- Species (subspecies) King Phillip Come Out For God's Sake!- Primate species alive today: 250 <- only one that really matters- Species of living mammals: 4,500- Species of birds: 11,000- Total species on Earth today: 5-10 million- Total species in Earth's history: 5 billion Marsupials (koalas) Monotremes: platypus and echidna Placental mammal (us) Ungulates (hoof mammals) Rodentia (rodents. .) Proboscideans (elephants) Carnivora Pinnipeds (Seals, sealions) Chiroptecans the bat ones Insectivores (not primates, but closely related) Loris (prosimian)...
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