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Anthropology notes

Anthropology notes - Great Apes chimpanzees-grassland of...

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3/3/08 Great Apes chimpanzees-grassland of Africa Orangutan Bonobo Gorilla Chimpanzee Studies 1. Gombe (Tanzania, East Africa). Jane Goodall 1960. Tool use,hunting, kinship bonds, "warfare", many other studies by her students. 2. Mahale Mtns. ( Tanzania, E. Africa). Toshisada Nishida, 1965. Confirmed Gombe data. 3. Tai ( Ivory Coast, West Africa). Christophe Boesch, 1979. Stone tool use, behavior of chimps in Lowland rain-forest. 4. Kibale (Uganda, E. Africa) Richard Wrangum 1987.
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Gombe like Santa Monica Mtns. seasonal place dry palm trees malaria ridden country chimps eat other mammals predator/prey system- how it impacts chimpanzees. WHY IS MEAT- EATING IMPORTANT? Meat became an unquestionably important part of the early human diet by 2.5 mya. Animal protein and fats were likely in short supply and of great nutritional value. As limited commodity,meat offers opportunities and necessity for barter systems. Meat acts as a status symbol. CHIMP LIFE do not live in groups live in communities-well defined physically boundaries. no stable unit-except a mom and her babies
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females leave their childhood communities- go to a new community-kind of like sister-in- laws 37 day menstrual cycle 9-10 day ovulation, swellings, bright- pink,smells- gives out signals she becomes sociable -in her ovulation-they form temporary parties-social groups, it is a fluid system- new chimps come into different social networks during this time. males are very sociable grow up and stay their lifetime in their home communities male bonds-mutual benefits. males groom one another-stay in groups go on patrol together-unbelievably intense. walk very quiet-stealthy-because of other chimps. weekly usually commit murder- only other species other than humans who commit brutal murders, not for food. potential mates are not usually murdered- most likely older females. power,sex,brutality,smarts chimps diet is mostly fruits
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2-3% meat- high quality make tools to dip into termite mounds/ants 1961 Goodall reported meat eating. 2 hunting peaks- highly seasonal-same as early humans a.February, summertime GOMBE CHIMPANZEE HUNTING BEHAVIOR over 90% of kills made by mates about 2/3 of all encounters results in hunts. about half of all hunts are successful multiple kills are common,2-7 colobus killed. meat sharing is a very political system shows off to rivals and share with allies to cement alliances and secure allies alpha male - climbing the ladder is very generous, then when reached, not so generous after reaches his position. more sensitive to cholesterol than humans. THE FATE OF THE APES: conservation priorities and prospects in the 21st century. - 175,000 chimps left;few 1,000 bonobos. PROBLEMS:
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1. habitat loss - space, farmland, population increase. 2. Bush-meat- eating wild animals, now an industry where shoot animals-black market, smoked meat; and sold at hight prices 5X per lb.-socially imbedded. EXAMPLE: Paris,NYC, Brussels 3. Apes reproduce only every 4 yrs.- it can't sustain hunting.
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