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Unformatted text preview: Anthropology lecture 1 03/03/2008 16:14:00 ← Fossil record: the only direct evidence of where we come from ← Apes are not evolutionary challenged human beings ← ← chimps • live across Africa ← chimpanzee studies • gombe (Tanzania, east Africa) jane goodall, 1960. Tool use, hunting, kinship bonds, “warfare.” Many other studies by her students. 48 years!! • Mahale mtns. (Tanzania, E. Africa). Toshisada Nishida, 1965. Confirmed gombe data • Tai (ivory coast, west Africa). Christophe Boesch, 1979. Stone tool use, behavior of chimps in lowland rain forest. • Kibale (Uganda, east Africa) Richard wranghem, 1987 ← Why is meat-eating important? • Meat became an unquestionably important part of the early human diet by 2.5 mya o Found fossils of animals that have scratches on them from early stone tools • Animal protein and fats were likely in short supply and of great nutritional value • As a limited commodity, meat offers opportunities and necessity for barter systems o Status symbol ← Chimps don’t live in groups- live in communities • Community has very well defined physical boundaries • Know the territory to within a foot • Within the territory, there is no physical unit except a mother and her child o Female, when hits puberty, migrate to another community o Female chimps not close allies (prob cuz they aren’t related) o 37 day cycle for ovulation, sexual swelling o sexual swelling makes apes attracted to him • male chimps are sociable o form alliances, with alpha male for example o go on patrols o only ape other than humans that perform murder for reasons other than food will kill females if she is not cycling, might eat the baby if she has one might not kill an ovulating female male chimp brutality exists ← chimp diet • mostly fruit, meat is 2-3% of diet, high quality part...
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- Fall '08
- Anthropology, East Africa, Paranthropus, Paranthropus boisei, Richard Leakey, Paranthropus aethiopicus