10forces.pt2.big

10forces.pt2.big - Geostrophic Balance V g PGF F cor L H...

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1 Ch. 6: Forces and Wind • Atmospheric Forces Pressure Gradient Force Coriolis Force Friction • Winds and Balance of Forces Hydrostatic Balance Winds Aloft—Geostrophic Balance Surface Winds Convergence/Divergence • Wind Instruments
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2 Forces F
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3 Pressure Gradient Force Pressure force is proportional to the difference in pressures PGF Δ p d 4 8 12 24 28 16 20 d d 2d
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4 Coriolis Force View from above (no rotation)
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5 Coriolis Force View from above
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6 Coriolis Force View on turntable (turntable rotating, but looks stationary to observer sitting on turntable
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7 Coriolis Force View on turntable
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8
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9 Coriolis Force Coriolis force magnitude F cor Object’s speed Earth’s rotation speed Latitude Direction: right angle (90°) to direction of motion Northern Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere
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10 Friction • Frictional force opposes motion • Magnitude directly proportional to object’s speed Motion (wind) Friction f –V f V
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11 Hydrostatic Balance Balance of forces in the vertical direction Gravity Vertical Pressure Gradient Force
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12
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Unformatted text preview: Geostrophic Balance V g PGF F cor L H Geostrophic wind blows parallel to isobars or height contours Geostrophic balance: steady-state wind where the PGF is exactly balanced by the Coriolis force Northern Hemisphere: lower pressure is to the left of the wind motion 13 Circulation Around Highs and Lows L H Counterclockwise Clockwise Northern Hemisphere 14 Circulation Around Highs and Lows L H Clockwise Counterclockwise Southern Hemisphere 15 V g Surface Winds Add friction L H PGF F cor V Surface winds blow at an angle to the isobars, turned slightly toward lower pressure 16 Circulation at the Surface L H Northern Hemisphere Counterclockwise, spiral inward Clockwise, spiral outward 17 Covergence/Divergence and Vertical Motion L H Convergence at surface Divergence at surface Divergence aloft Convergence aloft 18 Wind Instruments Direction: Wind Vane Speed: Anemometer...
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10forces.pt2.big - Geostrophic Balance V g PGF F cor L H...

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