104A Sp09 lecture 2 - Atomic Structure Reading: Miessler...

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Unformatted text preview: Atomic Structure Reading: Miessler and Tarr, Chapters 1, 2 DeKock and Gray, Chapter 1 C N O Chalcogens Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Halogens Noble gases Coinage Metals n = 1 s f d p n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 n = 6 n = 7 s f d p Alternative Periodic Table Designs Alternative Periodic Table Designs Stretched Periodic Table If Life Was Simpler Periodic Table (no shell interleaving) 1913, Danish Physicist, 1913, Danish Physicist, Niels Niels Bohr Bohr Condition for a stable orbit: centrifugal force = coulombic force mv 2 /r = Ze 2 /r 2 E n = KE + PE = 1 / 2 m e v 2- e 2 /r = -e 2 /2r Angular momentum can have only certain, quantized values: m e vr = nh/2 E n = 2 ! 2 m e e 4 n 2 h 2 = k n 2 k = 13.6 eV r n = n 2 h 2 = n 2 a o 4 ! 2 m e e 2 h = Plancks constant = 6.62 x 10-34 J . s Plancks equation: E = h r 1 = Bohr radius = a o = 0.529 Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom Hydrogen Emission Spectrum Energy Transitions in the Bohr Hydrogen Atom Rydberg equation describes line positions: R H (Rydberg constant) = 109,679 cm-1 1 n f 2 1 n i 2 R H = = 1 ! " Bohr Model Does Not Explain the Zeeman Effect Dual Nature (Wave Properties) of Matter ! " hc h E = = 2 mc E = mc h hc mc = = ! " " or 2 Planck (1900) energy of a photon Einstein (1908) DeBroglie (1924) for a photon = h/mv Heisenberg (1927) ! x ! p x ! h 4 " x = uncertainty in position of the electron p x = uncertainty in momentum of electron (in x direction) Baseball: 200 g Speed: 3000 cm/sec (67 miles/hour) Electron: 10-27 g Same velocity = 10-32 cm = 20 m Experimental evidence for the wave nature of electrons: electron diffraction The diffraction pattern caused by interference between light waves propagating from adjacent slits. Waves can intensify by constructive addition (peak + peak) and disappear by destructive addition (peak + trough)....
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104A Sp09 lecture 2 - Atomic Structure Reading: Miessler...

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