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104A Sp09 lecture 2

104A Sp09 lecture 2 - Atomic Structure Reading Miessler and...

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Atomic Structure Reading: Miessler and Tarr, Chapters 1, 2 DeKock and Gray, Chapter 1
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C N O Chalcogens Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Halogens Noble gases Coinage Metals
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n = 1 s f d p n = 2 n = 3 n = 4 n = 5 n = 6 n = 7 s f d p Alternative Periodic Table Designs Alternative Periodic Table Designs “Stretched” Periodic Table “If Life Was Simpler” Periodic Table (no shell interleaving)
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1913, Danish Physicist, 1913, Danish Physicist, Niels Niels Bohr Condition for a stable orbit: centrifugal force = coulombic force mv 2 /r = Ze 2 /r 2 E n = KE + PE = 1 / 2 m e v 2 - e 2 /r = -e 2 /2r Angular momentum can have only certain, quantized values: m e vr = nh/2 π E n = 2 ! 2 m e e 4 n 2 h 2 = k n 2 k = 13.6 eV r n = n 2 h 2 = n 2 a o 4 ! 2 m e e 2 h = Planck’s constant = 6.62 x 10 -34 J . s Planck’s equation: E = h ν r 1 = Bohr radius = a o = 0.529 Å
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Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom
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Hydrogen Emission Spectrum
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Energy Transitions in the Bohr Hydrogen Atom Rydberg equation describes line positions: R H (Rydberg constant) = 109,679 cm -1 1 n f 2 1 n i 2 R H = = 1 ! "
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Bohr Model Does Not Explain the Zeeman Effect
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Dual Nature (Wave Properties) of Matter ! " hc h E = = 2 mc E = mc h hc mc = = ! " " or 2 Planck (1900) energy of a photon Einstein (1908) DeBroglie (1924) for a photon λ = h/mv Heisenberg (1927) ! x ! p x ! h 4 " Δ x = uncertainty in position of the electron Δ p x = uncertainty in momentum of electron (in x direction)
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Baseball: 200 g Speed: 3000 cm/sec (67 miles/hour) Electron: 10 -27 g Same velocity λ = 10 -32 cm λ = 20 μ m Experimental evidence for the wave nature of electrons: electron diffraction
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The diffraction pattern caused by interference between light waves propagating from adjacent slits. Waves can intensify by constructive addition (peak + peak) and disappear by destructive addition (peak + trough). Electron beams also show diffraction, and thus show wavelike properties!
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