review terms exam 1

review terms exam 1 - PSC41 Research Methods SSII09 Review...

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PSC41 Research Methods SSII09 Review Sheet for Exam 1 What is science? (Lect 1; Ch. 1 pp.3-23) Sources of knowledge o Tenacity – believing in something because of because of habit; gained from repeated ideas despite evidence. - repeated slogans in campaigns o Intuition – relying on your gut feeling; superstition; based on subjective feelings - having knowledge of something without knowing where that knowledge came from o Authority – knowledge gained through figures; relying on assumed expertise on another - parents, teachers, politicians, etc o Rational – knowledge gained through logical reasoning o Empirical – relying on evidence and observations; using our 5 senses; represents a collection of facts The scientific approach – set of rules, attitude, goals, and procedures, for creating and answering questions about nature. o Goals – form and test ideas through unbiased observations o general rules – help to describe, explain, and predict determinism empiricism o objective – science is objective; using multiple observers; overcoming subjective bias o testable – attempting to disprove ideas; should be falsifiable confirmation vs. disconfirmation o skepticism – question everything Psychology as science o Areas of psychological research Importance of understanding psych. Science The 5 Steps of conducting research: o Getting ideas – casual observations (the empirical method); finding what others have found (authority) o Forming hypothesis – identify variables; characteristics or conditions that change; describe relationship between variables o Generate testable prediction – the research hypothesis; it can lead to many predictions; decide on ways to test it (the measures, research design, and sampling method) o Evaluate prediction – making systematic and planned observations; collect and analyze data o Conclusions – use it to support, refute, or refine the original hypothesis; publish findings Overview of the research process (Lect 2; Ch. 2 pp.29-37) Getting ideas o Starting from theory – explain, organize, and predict; should be broad and relevant o Starting from practical need Know difference between Applied research and Basic research Applied research – going out there in the modern world; designed for problems Basic research – is theoretical o Starting from observations Unsystematic observations vs. systematic observations Unsystematic – anecdotes Systematic – literature searches of previous studies o Literature search Goals – get more knowledge; be familiar with current research; help extend own research Primary vs. Secondary sources Primary – firsthand; empirical journals, theses, conference presentations Secondary – didn’t conduct study; books, literature review articles Electronic databases 1
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Harvest Melvyl PsycINFO These are all ways to get information for research o Structure of empirical articles (Know in which section to look for hypothesis, which section to look for info about
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review terms exam 1 - PSC41 Research Methods SSII09 Review...

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