05-13 - I 5.12 p ^ 0 13 7 1 7 50 Dk s z 8 9219 X ~ pp ^ P v...

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I 5.12 °p ± ² + °°°°°°°°° :°° : °°°°°°°° 0 13 : 7 1°°°°°°°7 ± @ °°°°°@ ² @ ° D s / z 8 :°° 9219 X ! *°° 50 :°°°
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p P d
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Instructor Contact Information Name: I Tel: 58641527 Email: [email protected]
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Chapter 11 I d
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Germ cells vs Somatic Cells c vs I Germ cells give rise to Gametes ( I ): eggs, sperm; Reproductive cell: c Germline I ( c ) Primordial germ cells c d Germplasm I , I Genital ridge: I Gonad: I ; ovary and testis
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Fig. 1.5 Preformation I
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The development of germ cells
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Fig. 11.1 Pole cell (Primordial germ cells): I Pole plasm: I ( d ) polar granules (protein + RNA) Two key experiments: 1) UV irradiation: sensitive to UV 2) Transplantation FRUIT FLY Germ-cell fate can be specified by a distinct germplasm in the egg.
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Fig. 11.4 Maternal genes are involved in pole plasm formation. At least 8 “grandchildless” mutants Oskar alone is sufficient to initiate the specification of germ cells. The localization signal is 3’-UTR 5’-UTR CDS 3’-UTR
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Fig. 11.2 P granules asymmetric distribution pgl-1 , pie products; PGL-1 may specify germ cells by regulating some aspect of mRNA metabolism. PIE represses transcription of zygotic genes in the blastomeres at about 100-cells to maintain the stem- cell property. NEMTODE
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Germ plasms are present in Xenopus eggs: Yolky vegetal pole: yolk-free patches of cytoplasm aggregates Asymmetric distribution: the most vegetal daughter cells Sensitive to UV
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vasa mRNA is the component of zebrafish germ plasms vasa mRNA is synthesized during oogenesis and becomes localized to the cleavage furrows during the 1 st cleavage; 4-cells in 32-cell stages
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No germ plasm was found in mouse and other mammals Box 3E I I
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Fig. 11.3 No germ plasm was found in mouse and other mammals Pluripotency markers: Fragilis, Stella and Oct-4; Alkaline phosphatase Amnion: I Allantois: I
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Takahashi K , Yamanaka S . Department of Stem Cell Biology, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors. Cell. 2006 Aug 25;126(4):663-76. Epub 2006 Aug 10. Differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state by transfer of nuclear contents into oocytes or by fusion with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Little is known about factors that induce this reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic or adult fibroblasts by introducing four factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, c- Myc, and Klf4, under ES cell culture conditions. Unexpectedly, Nanog was dispensable. These cells, which we designated iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells, exhibit the morphology and growth properties of ES cells and express ES cell marker genes. Subcutaneous transplantation of iPS cells into nude mice resulted in tumors containing a variety of tissues from all three germ layers. Following injection into blastocysts, iPS cells contributed to mouse embryonic development. These data demonstrate that
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