6 - ( (Cell differentiation) ( (Stem cell) Fig 8.1...

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Unformatted text preview: ( (Cell differentiation) ( (Stem cell) Fig 8.1 Differentiated cell types There are more than 200 clearly recognizable differentiated cell types in mammals. Luxury or cell-specific proteins that characterize a fully differentiated cell, eg; Hemoglobin in red blood cells; Keratin in skin epidermal cells; Myosins in muscles Housekeeping proteins; Box 8A DNA microarrays for studying gene expression At early stage of differentiation, cell becomes determined. Determined or committed: ( ; developmental potential Eg: mesoderm somites: muscle, cartilage, dermis, and vascualr tissue, but not other cell types. Once determined for a particular fate, cells pass on that determined state to all their progeny. Cell differentiation is controlled by a wide variety of external signals, ranging from cell-surface proteins, secreted polypeptide cytokines to molecules of the extracellular matrix and steroid hormones. Stem cells 1 ( self-renewal ( 2 ( differentiation into two or more cell types ( c M M Cell division: ( Cell differentiation: ( Cell proliferation: ( A cessation of cell proliferation is necessary for full cell differentiation to occur. Cell proliferation is most evident before the terminal stage of differentiation, and most terminally differentiated cells divide only rarely. Nerve cells, muscle cells, no more divide at all. The control of gene function 1. Transcription 2. RNA splicing 3. Translation 4. Post-translation modification Control of transcription involves both general and tissue-specific transcriptional regulators Cis-regulatory control regions contain multiple Transcription factors binding sites General transcription factors: forming initiation complex with the polymerase at the promoter site Tissue-specific transcription factors: binding to enhancers. 3000 TF in human genome. Fig 8.2 Tissue-specific gene expression is controlled by regulatory regions. Elastase: ; Pancreas: ( Growth hormone: pituitary ( Fig 8.3 Gene expression is regulated by the coordinated action of gene-regulatory proteins that bind to control regions in DNA Creating a Transgenic Animal 1. Making a transgene construct 2. Microinjection 3. Founder set up 4. F1 selection 5. Stable transgenic animals Udvadia and Linney (2003) Developmental Biology 256 117 pWI X/B_ Ef1a_YFP...
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This note was uploaded on 09/03/2009 for the course BIO 503 taught by Professor Z.zyang during the Fall '09 term at Nanjing University.

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6 - ( (Cell differentiation) ( (Stem cell) Fig 8.1...

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