Lec-42-Chap-12-3 - Substitution What functional groups can...

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Lecture 42 Review; Amino Acids and Proteins, Chapter 12, pp. 591-597. Substitution : What functional groups can we make? X :B + B + :X alcohols and ethers amines Br + N + HBr N H halides Br + I + I Br Br + O + HBr O H Br O + Br + O carbon-carbon bonds Substitution : What functional groups can we make? X :B + B + :X Br + + Br Br + + Br C N N Note: To make an acetylide anion: H + NaNH 2 Na + NH 3 Elimination : What functional groups can we make? H X :B + + HB + :X alkenes alkynes H X H X :B + + 2 HB + 2 X H X X H :B + + 2 HB + 2 X 2 2
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+ XY X Y Addition : What functional groups can we make? halides + HX H X alcohols + H 3 O + H OH dihalides + X 2 X X alkanes + H 2 H H O Cl OH + O O + HCl Addition-Elimination : What functional groups can we make? esters and acids amides O Cl NH + O N + HCl ketones O Cl + O + Cl Knowledge and Skills Know about proteins Important classes of protein Basic building blocks: amino acids, types of amino acids Peptide bond; geometric properties of peptide bond Primary protein structure Important types of secondary structure; how are they stabilized? Tertiary and Quarternary structures Proteins Polymers of amino acids, connected by peptide linkages Peptides are chains of amino acids dipeptide, tripeptide … oligopeptides … polypeptides protein range: 50-~200 amino acid residues for single chains; several thousand for oligomeric proteins Protein structure: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quarternary structures Major classes of protein, by structure: Globular proteins (soluble proteins, membrane-bound proteins;
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