Lec-36-Chap-12-1a - Lecture 36, 4/21Fowler a...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Lecture 36, 4/21Fowler a neurotransmitter present in the brain Dopamine Organic Chemistry is three dimensional a space filling model a space filling model a neurotransmitter present in the brain hydrogen nitrogen Dopamine Dopamine H O oxygen a ball and stick model carbon H H H C N C C C H H H C C O C H H H H C 1 Lecture 36, 4/21Fowler Dopamine. Dash Molecular formula two lines = 4 electrons Dopamine. Bond-line Molecular Bondformula H O H H H C N C C C H H H C C C O H H H one line = electrons H C HO HO 2 NH2 Condensed molecular formula = C8H11NO2 all nodes are carbon add hydrogens until there are 4 bonds to each carbon atom H O H H H C N C C C H H H C C O C H H H H C H O H H H C N C C C H H H C C O C H H H H C HO HO NH2 HO HO NH2 Both structures represent the molecule dopamine but the bottom structure is simpler to draw. 2 Lecture 36, 4/21Fowler An infinite number of organic compounds is possible. They all cannot be studied individually. Dopamine, a neurotransmitter alcohols alkanes HO HO NH2 HO HO aromatics NH2 amines An approach to chemistry is to divide molecules into constituent parts and study these parts (functional groups) individually. Some Common Functional Groups: alkane alkene alkyne aromatic C C C H C C C H C C C H alcohol C OH ether C O C carbonyl groups O aldehyde C H ketone acid ester O C O C OH O C O O C N amine C N amide 3 Lecture 36, 4/21Fowler Hydrocarbons are also produced from natural, living sources. Small amounts of hydrocarbons are also produced from natural, living sources. terpenes light Smoky Mountain haze Grass cow Natural Gas (CH4) Fresh Kills landfill. Methane recovery plant at Fresh Kills landfill. Methane is a natural product produced by rotting garbarge. garbarge. 4 Lecture 36, 4/21Fowler roth pond roth pond ? methane, CH4 Swamp Oil well organic compounds heat pressure time petroleum (plants/animals) 5 Lecture 36, 4/21Fowler Petroleum Refinery, Eagle Point, NJ The refining process. Catalytic cracking. a component of petroleum The refining process. Catalytic cracking. a component of petroleum The refining process. Catalytic cracking. a component of petroleum heat, catalyst heat, catalyst a smaller component of petroleum + ethylene heat, catalyst more small organic compounds 6 Lecture 36, 4/21Fowler Products beginning with catalytic cracking Some Common Functional Groups: alkane alkene alkyne aromatic C C C H C C C H C C C H alcohol C OH ether C O C carbonyl groups O aldehyde C H ketone acid ester O C O C OH O C O O C N amine C N amide Organic compounds are characterized by their structural diversity. OH The following molecules can be considered to consist of two parts, their carbon scaffold and the OH functional group. group. CH3 OH OH CH3 OH methanol OH H H HO estradiol H Vitamin A methanol OH Vitamin A HO HO HO glucose OH O OH H H HO estradiol H HO HO HO glucose OH O OH 7 Lecture 36, 4/21Fowler The study of functional groups is a common approach to the understanding of organic compounds. CH3 OH OH The chemical and physical properties of functional groups is similar in all molecules. CH3 OH OH methanol OH H H HO estradiol H Vitamin A methanol OH H Vitamin A HO HO OH O OH HO glucose H HO estradiol H HO HO OH O OH HO glucose The chemical and physical properties of alcohols are dominated by the electronegativity of the oxygen atom. CH3 O H O CH3 H boiling point = 65 C The chemical and physical properties of alcohols are dominated by the electronegativity of the oxygen atom. CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 H boiling point = -89 C H O O H H H O H O H H O O soluble in water H H O O O H O H HO HO HO OH O OH H not soluble in water 8 Lecture 36, 4/21Fowler Carboxylic acids are similar to alcohols because their properties are dominated by the electronegative oxygen atoms. H H C H H C O H H H H H C O C O H Alcohols can be oxidized to aldehydes and then to carboxylic acids. H H C H H C O H H Cr2O7-2 H C H H H C O Cr2O7-2 H C H H O C O H alcohol carboxylic acid alcohol aldehyde carboxylic acid Both alcohols and carboxylic acids are acidic. H H C H H C O H H + Na OH H2O H C H H H H O H C H H O + Na OH H2O H C H H C O C O H H C O C H O C O H Both alcohols and carboxylic acids are acidic. H2O + H H C H H C O H H + H O O C C H H H H H H C H C O H O C C H H H alcohol carboxylic acid ester O H C H H C O H 9 Lecture 36, 4/21Fowler Quiz a. Choose the correct order for increasing boiling points for the following compounds. O H CH3CH2 O 1 H CH3CH2CH2CH2 O 2 H CH3CH2CH2CH2 O H CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2 O 3 H CH2CH2CH2CH3 Quiz b. Choose the correct order for increasing solubility in water for the following compounds. O H O H H CH3CH2 O 1 H H CH3CH2CH2CH2 O H 2 H H H CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2 O 3 H H O H H G = H -TS O H H A 1<2<3 B 1<3<2 C 2<1<3 D 2<3<1 E 3<2<1 E 3<1<2 A 1<2<3 B 1<3<2 C 2<1<3 10 O O D 2<3<1 E 3<2<1 E 3<1<2 Lecture 36, 4/21Fowler 11 ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online