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Lec-20-Chap-09-2 - CHE 131 Lecture 20 Lecture 20 Hybrid...

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CHE 131 Lecture 20, 3/8/2006 1 Lecture 20 Hybrid Orbitals (9.3, 9.4) Benjamin S. Hsiao Department of Chemistry Stony Brook University Lecture 21, Knowledge and Skills Form hybrid orbitals: sp, sp 2 , and sp 3 • Form σ bonds with hybrid orbitals and unhybridized orbitals • Form π bonds with unhybridized p orbitals Hydrogen Molecule 1s(A) 1s(B) overlap + + +/ + + + σ σ +/ + one orbital! one orbital! Generation of the Orbitals of the Dihydrogen Molecule (Molecular Orbital Theory) in-phase out-of-phase One half of each 1s orbital is mixed into each molecular orbital! H A + H B H A -H B 1s wavefunction: its phase may be positive (+) or negative ( - )
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CHE 131 Lecture 20, 3/8/2006 2 Hydrogen Fluoride Molecule Generation of the Molecular Orbitals of Hydrogen Fluoride + + + + + + σ σ in phase out-of phase 1s 2p More fluorine 2p character More hydrogen 1s character HF bond is polar (Molecular Orbital Theory) Generation of Atomic Hybrid Orbitals (Valence Bond Theory) Like the formation of molecular orbitals from atomic orbitals of different atoms, it is also possible to generate different atomic orbitals by the combination of orbitals of the same atom . The resulting orbitals are called hybrid orbitals . The total number of orbitals is not changed in the hybridization process. For example, one s orbital and one p orbital can be hybridized to form two sp orbitals . In this case, 1/2 of each orbital is used for each sp orbital.
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