Alternative Energy

# Alternative Energy - Energy Society and the Environment...

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Energy, Society, and the Environment Unit 7: Alternative Energy Sources

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Important Dates HW 6 due April 1 (next Wednesday) Second Paper Draft due April 13 (note the change in due date) Some more topics will be added to the list today
Alternative Sources Hydropower

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Alternative Sources Wind power
Alternative Sources Geothermal

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Alternative Sources Biomass
Hydropower Basics Potential energy of water held at a height is converted into kinetic energy, which turns turbines and generates electricity potential energy kinetic energy

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Hydropower Basics Potential energy: E = m g h = mass x gravity x height Example: What is the potential energy stored in 1 kg of water at 90 m height? E = m g h = 1 kg x 9.8 m/s 2 x 90 m = 882 kg m 2 / s 2 = 882 J
In Class Question Potential energy: E = m g h = mass x gravity x height Power = Energy / time Example: Calculate the flow of water in kg/s required to provide 1 kW of electric power if the water falls a vertical distance of 90 m. Assume 80% conversion efficiency.

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In Class Question Potential energy: E = m g h = mass x gravity x height Power = Energy / time Example: Calculate the flow of water in kg/s required to provide 1 kW of electric power if the water falls a vertical distance of 90 m. Assume 80% conversion efficiency. Power = 882 J/s = 882 W if 1 kg/s is flowing Net power = 80% x power = 882 x 0.80 = 706 W 1 kW = 1000 W 1000 W / 706 W = 1.42 kg/s water flow is needed
Hydropower Basics The water cycle

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Dams are Major Investments 2 000 0 4 000 6 000 Number Of Dams 1900 1990s 45,000 large dams worldwide 45,000 large dams worldwide 2 dams commissioned 2 dams commissioned per day in1970s per day in1970s total investment exceeds total investment exceeds \$2 trillion \$2 trillion \$40 billion expenditure per year at peak \$40 billion expenditure per year at peak estimated 40 – 80 million people displaced estimated 40 – 80 million people displaced flow in 60% of world’s rivers affected flow in 60% of world’s rivers affected There was a World Commission on Dams to There was a World Commission on Dams to resolve escalating conflicts over dams in resolve escalating conflicts over dams in development development
General Dam Statistics: Registered large dams in East and South-East Asia is 4157, including unregistered dams in China and Vietnam that number may be 26257. The countries with the most registered dams are China (1855), Japan (1077) and North Korea (765). The single busiest decade in terms of dam commissioning was 1971-1980.

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Alternative Energy - Energy Society and the Environment...

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