Midterm Study Guide

Midterm Study Guide - American Studies Slug: America, The...

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Unformatted text preview: American Studies Slug: America, The Frontier, and The New West Midterm Study Guide Homestead Act [1864} I Lincoln wanted to settle the country so the government gave out large plots of land to people to farm themselves *- The Homestead Act was a United States Federal law that gave freehold title to 160 acres {about 65 hectares) of undeveloped land in the American 1latest. The person to whom title was granted had to be at least 21 years of age, and to have built on the section, and lived in For 5 years, a house that was at least 12 by 14 feet [313 it 4.3 m) in size. The Act was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 2t), 1862. | Was in the name oi" individualism Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia ' 1331. The question was “are the Cherokee a separate nation?” I The Cherokee were considered a very civilized tribe-could write and do everything that was considered civilised except they were Indian 4- Article 12 of their treaty tried to assimilate them more by trying to make them beenme cultivators and they would receive gifts. The US will plant American farmers among them as an example It was a problem to the white settlers were such good fanners They refused to become capitalists-they still wanted their culture [assimilation has its limits} There was no question in Americans minds that they and the N.A,’s could share land together In the 13205 gold was discovered in Georgia so the Indians had a larger problem, President Monroe proposed that they give up their land and go west of the Mississippi. John Quincy Adams advised them to go where there were no civilized Americans 4- Jackson said that the Indians were 1 nation not many separate ones and passed removal bill i Cherokee sued the US for this removal and they lost. John Marshall {Supreme Court justice) said they are not Foreign nation’s cuz they live within the US boundaries so they are “domestic dependent nations” 3" dependent so had to do what gov. told them. They cannot sue the gov because only citizens, nations, and states can sue the gov. and Indians were none of these, so case was thrown out. Compromise of 1350 The Compromise of 1851] was a series of laws that resolved the tenitorial and slavery controversies arising from the Mexican-American War {1846—48}. The five laws balanced die interests of the slaveholding states of the South and the five states. California was admitted as a free state, received Financial compensation for relinquishing claim to lands west of the R_io_ lBrande in what is now New Mexico, the territory of New Mexico (including present-day Arizona and LII—ah} was organized without any specific prohibition of slavery, the slave trade (but not SlElVEL'E itself} was abolished in Washington, D.C., and the stringent Fugitive Slave Law was passed, requiring all LLB. citizens to assist in the return of runaway slaves. Mason-Dixon Line the Missgpri cgmprgmise oF 182i}, uses the Mason-Dixon line symbolically as a supposed cultural boundaryr between the Northem United States and the Southern United States Treaty with the Cherokees 1?91 Peace and friendship, animosities will cease Protection of us: Under powerfprotection of US gov, and will make no other treaty wtforeign power or individual states Prisoners: Anyone captured by US will be returned Boundaries: top of Currahee Mountain, direct line to Tugelo River, NE to the Ucunna Mountain, over south-Carolina Indian boundary to North Carolina boundary, ect. And the sum of 1000 Eli paid to them annually Road: there will be a road from Washington district to mero district and the navigation of the Tennessee River Trade: US can regulate their trade No citizen can settled on Indian lands, if they do Cherokee can punish them No citizen of US can hunt or destroy the game on the Cherokee lands If any Cherokee or anyone living there commits a crime they must be turned over to the US Gov. Citizens of US committing crimes in Indian territory will be punished Dred Scott v. Sanford and the meaning in the constitution 135? He went from a slave holding state{Mis5ouri} to a non slave holding state (Illinois) He was helped by abolitionist to sue for his Freedom in court claiming he should be free since he had lived on free soil for a long time The constitution gives freedoms and then circumsci'ibes who can have them They go back to the consu'tution and read “all men are created equally" and then say, well they didn't mean slaves because the framers had slaves and they couldn‘t be hypocrites Supreme court rules that congress could not stop slavery in the newly emerging territories and declared the Missouri compromise of 132D to be unconstitutional because it violated the 5'“ amendment- right to property They said he was not a citizen of Missouri within the meaning of the constitution of the US and so not entitled to sue in its courts and so the circuit court had no jurisdiction of the case and so the judgment of the plea is en'oneous The Vanishing American Film made in 1925 Indian land was the inspiration For this film- the land is seen as vacant In the book: ending he dies of disease, but original ending he manies Maryann and assimilates but publishers Wouldn't publish it, when movie version they change it again to kill him off in an Indian uprising They are saying the tnie American is die Indian and he is vanishing The weak and thejust always give rise to the strong and unjust Found cliff dwellings civilization in Southwest, maybe ancestor of Pueblo or Arasazi who disappeared. The Americans identified with them because it gives them an ancient past ' Iconic landscape: seems to represent something, different stages of human civilization like turners stages of the frontier and Norris’s stages of human civilizationsfculture ' The Indians defeat a weaker race of cliff dwellers and the chief says may a stronger race come and defeat you which naturaliaes our coming in and defeating them Bleeding Kansas II Fight over was it a slave state or not i' The Love Joys went to Kansas to try to keep it slave flee " Congress decided to let Kansas vote-both pro—slavery and abolitionists rallied so they had two governments and fighting broke out 1'383 Treaty of Paris - Demarketed LLS. ten-itory roughly from the Atlantic to the Mississippi, yet fully half of the Country consisted of undeclared Indian Land ' ratified by the I n r " fth (I nf r' i n on lg ngg 13 Id, 17"fl4 formallyr ended the Amgrig'g n ngglgtiong rv Wg 1' between the Kin m fCr ' E'tri ' in and the Unitgd 5Q tgs of Amgrig‘g Treaty of Greenville ' signed at Fort ISmeenville (now Greenville, Ohio], on August 3, fl, between a coalition of Native Americans ("Indians") and the United States following the Native American loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. It put an end to the Northwest Indian War. The United States was represented by General Anthony Wayne, who defeated the Native Americans and raaed their villages a year earlier at Fallen Timbers, In exchange for goods to the value of $20,000 (such as blankets, utensils, and domestic animals), the Native Americans turned over to the United States: 0 Large parts of modem-day Ohio 0 The future site of filiigg go 0 The Fort Dgtmit area Northwest Ordinance of 1M? ' Contained provision about Indian Rights ' act of the Continental Congress of the United States unanimously passed on July 13, fl under the Articles of Confederation, The primary effect of the ordinance was the creation of the Northwest Territory as the first organized territory of the United States out of the region south of the Great Lakes north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River. On August T, w, the US. Congress affirmed the Ordinance with slight modifications under the Constitution I it established the precedent by which the United States would expand westward across floflb America by the admission of new ides, rather than by the expansion of existing states. The banning of slavery in the territory had the effect of establishing the Ohio River as the boundary between free and slave territory in the region between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mifigiggippi Riyer. This division helped set the stage for the balancing act between E and aims. ins that was the basis of a critical political question in American politics in the 19th century until the Civil War. Amistad Case 0 Ship with slaves I Question was where did the people come from and what was to become of them - Above deck vs. below deck- slave vs. non slave, there was reversal after the revolt ' John Quincyr Adams defended them in the Supreme court I Amistad 1930s decided that they weren’t slaves and therefore weren’t merchandise so didn’t have to be returned to Spain. They were free, and could be returned to Africa if they wanted. Cinque went back to Africa. I John Quincy Adams defended the Africans to the supreme court even though they Wun in Mass. Martin Van Buren was the one who wanted it to be argued in the Supreme Court (he was pres. Then) the queen on Spain argued her case for T more presidents until the confederacy lost in the civil war {no more slavery) Legal and moral rights: mutiny on slave ship is a demonstration of their moral rights Big contradiction between what is legal and what is moral Calhoun says slavery and war are natural because they have always happened, but since America is new they should break from what always was. Social Darwinism Vision of history marked by constant conquest, this is a strategy of thinking about history called naturalization which makes it seem inevitable Abolitionism poliu'cal movement that sought to abolish the practice of slavery and the Worldwide slave trade Dawes act What to do with resen'ations? Right of federal government to go to reservations and enforce property rights The govemment would divide the reservation and make it into property and therefore force assimilation authorized the President of the United States to survey Native American tribal land and divide the area into allotments for the individual Native Gold Rush Began in Sutter’s mill in 1848 Gold rush made the UC into a continent nation- all settled By June it of the people in San Francisco left to mine gold Some people employed Indians to mine for them By 1349 over SILUUflpeople left for CA, at first people went by sea around 3. America and then many waited until spring to go by wagon train Cholera killed ~15UU on the trail Kit Carson: tales written about him by people who never met him, was a mountain man William Stain— man they talked about in The West documentary. Went down lassens cutoff, split into smaller groups, he left by sea in 1350, became the biggest peach grower in Niagara NY Settlements developed wherever gold was found 28 of 49ers were from US, and so were from new England CA had more immigrants than anywhere in the US Sam Branan— started a store in san Francisco and made EDUdeay CA seen as a sinful place-many gambled at night Women could work at Inns and as bankers Offered the Indians money to stop harassing wagon trains and fighting each other In 1850 CA became a state American miners got the senate to put a [as on people not US. citizens so many had to leave The Chinese were looked at as inferior and got the worst claims but they made it because they worked harder- they were not guaranteed citizenship 2”" foreign miner tax: 1352-187fi $ collected from Chinese constituted 50% of CA’s income , many Californians murdered them Levi Straus made pants A Chinese man opened the first laundry mat The Donner party took a shortcut and got caught in the mountains and ate dead members of their party Cities offered rewards for Indian Heads, also people would kidnap the children and sell them Before the 49ers came there were 150,000 Indians in CA and in 13TH there were only 30,000— was the worst slaughter of Indians in American history Soon gold could only be gotten by blasting mine shafts owned by rich people, some would mine on their way home like at Pikes Peak “Natural Freedom” Marry meanings Manifest Destiny I I o ldea that god gave this land to white Americans to settle because the design of nature showed evidence of god [symmetry] and American showed symmetry to god gave it to them People believed this term rationalized killing Bison Ternr coined in 1845 Loulsiarra Purchase 13(13 by Thomas Jefferson Doubled size of United States Ended the Obstacle of the French Done without constitutional or congressional authorityr Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 In 1845 congress voted to annex the Texas Republic and sent troops led by Zachary Taylor to the Rio Grande to protect its border Treaty signed in 1848 calling for Mexico to cede 55% of its ten'itory (Arizona, ca, New Mexico, and parts of Colorado, Nevada, and Utah) in exchange to 15 million in compensation for war related damage to Mexican property Also: the Texas border is at the Rio Grande, protection for the property and devil rights of Mexican nationals living within the new border, US will police its side of the border, Compulsory arbioation of future disputes between the 2 countries Mexicans currently living where is now the US may choose to stay or to move back to Mexico. If they stay, they can retain their Mexican rights or becorrre US citizens and must choose within 1 year. In the new US territory, much is occupied by Indians, and the Gov. will use force to control them if necessary If Indians talte Mexicans into US territory, the US Gov will return them to Mexico ASP If war breaks out between the 2 nations: merchants of one Country living in the other allowed to remain 12 months [those on interior} and 6 months (at seaports] to collect debts and settle affairs — will have same footing as citizens of that country. POW will not be put into distant, inclement or unwholesome districts Turner’s Frontier dialectic: oppositions and synthesis Progress of frontier N ulJIe sava gt- uncorrupted by the influences of civilization, was considered more worthy, more authentically noble than the contemporary product of civilized training ' The term “noble savage" expresses a concept of humanity as unencumbered by the normal essence of an unfettered human. Since the concept embodies the idea that without the bounds of civilization, humans are essentially good, dre basis for the idea of the "noble savage" lies in the doctrine of the goodness of humans, War of 1312 I End of corrflict with Britain ' fought between the United 51a res of America , on one side, and Greg [ Brita in, the British North Arngricg n gglonigs, 14pm; and nggr Ca na da , and Now; .fjgotia on the other. The 1war was fought from 1812 to 1815 and involved both land and naval engagements. The Americans declared war on Britain on June 18 E, for a combination of reasons— outrage at the impressment {seizure} of thousands of American sailors into the British navy, frustration at British restraints on neutral trade while Britain warred with France and anger at British alliances with Native people defending their urrceded territories'—ll which conflicted with American expansion and settlement into the illd Northwest. Mexican War 1846-1348 US got upper Califomia Was the annexation of Texas and war with Mexico done for the slave holding interest? The aftermath of the war is celebrating peace but really it is celebrating plunder and slavery Most soldiers in Mexican war were enlisted volunteers, if they go out and say what great land it is, other people will want to go out and settle it, and set up first outposts. With such a large piece of land they need people to settle it and live there. 0 All writers find in the west a common gmund— right of ownership, extending of natural universal freedoms- agree that this is what is making America what it is, but don’t agree on what IT is. The west is promising a new civilizati on- they can have a new idea of independence by living off the land and sustaining themselves. TranscendemaliSm ' A group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and ghiIoSophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. It I Assimilation '- Indians The composite American '- Turners idea Indian Citizenship Act - Granted full citizenship to the Native Americans Indian Removal Bill 0 1330 I The Cherokee “trail of tears” —trail they took to Oklahoma [President Jackson made them go) Missouri Compromise of 1320 ' an agreement passed in Lflfl between the pro—sla very and a nti-sla veg; factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western tenitories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30" north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri The lirrlightt-rrrrrt‘nt I Polygamy ' Practiced by the Mormons in Utah Foreing Miners Tart I I Middle Passage *- The Middle Passage Atlantic slave trade was the forced transportation of African people from Africa to enslavemerrt in North America South America and the Caribbean (The Americas). It was called the Middle Passage because the slave trade was a form of Triangular trade; mpg left Ermape for African markets, sailed to Africa where the goods were sold or traded for prisoners and kidnap victims on the African coast, then sailed to the Americas and Caribbean [West Indies] where the Africans were sold or traded for goods for European markets, and then returned to Europe Heliotropic Myth 0 States that because the sun sets westward, westward expansion is the natural thing Mountain Meadows Massacre ' In September E the Fancher party, an emigrant group from Arkansas, camped at Mountain Meadows, a staging area in southern Utah used to prepare for the long crossing of the Mohave desert by groups traveling to California. They were attacked by a group of Native American Paiutes and Mormon militiamen dressed as Native Americans. After a siege Lee approached the Fancher encirclement and convinced the emigrants to surrender their property to the native Americans in return for safe eonduct to nearby Cedar City, whereupon approximately 129 of the Fancher party were killed by Mormon militia and Paiutes, leaving only about 1? small children as survivors. Lee later maintained that he had acted under orders from his military leaders, under protest, Lee remained active in Mormonism and local government for several years, Antericanizatiun I I The Frontier I Before it was America, it was the frontier I Defined as where civilisation met savagery The TWest I represented everything that the east wasn’t— it is an ongoing evolution You eould escape anything there, slavery, class system, eet. Helped to ignite the civil war Is a story of conquest It is a myth— it describes the direction of an idea, a return to a lost paradise As a process it describes what happens to cultures when they come into contact with one another and the new ideas that result from this meeting I In 1359 San Francisco was the most diverse city in the country I Idea that Atnerica has no real past, and the west was an opportunity for them to get a past Cowboys: I Many layers of history that go into this idea I The Spanish bring horses, and the Indians adopt them and use them I The Spanish are the original cowboys Spirit of American Progress I Painting by John Gast, it’s the most famous painting about the west I Lady in white is spreading progress and civilization I Indians and buffalo running west into darkness, light from the right North-west Passage I Said to take them to the Pacific and gold I Nev. Mexico I Spanish Colony Japanese Relocation Centers I In 1942 Franklin D. Roosevelt signed executive order 9966 which called for the round up of 129,999 Americans of Japanese heritage to one of 19 internment camps called "relocation centers” in CA, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, Wyoming, Colorado, and Arkansas I This order was because of farmers who competed against Japanese labor, poliu'cians who sided wt anti Japanese Constituencies and general public- Pearl Harbor I Canada had similar camps but males were sent to road camps or sugar beet projects I Conditions: overcrowded and provided poor living conditions, leadership positions offered to American born Japanese I Eventually gov. allowed internees to leave the camps if they enlisted in the LLB. army but only 1,299 chose this I Legal Challenges: 2 major cases {Hirabayashi v. US in 1943 and Korematsu v. US in 1944) saying 5'" amendment rights violated because of their ancestry and Sup Court rules in favor of US Gov. I In 1944 President Roosevelt rescinded the order I In 1999 the gov. began reparations paying $29,999 to each survivor, Canada did as well I Other nationalities sent as well like German, Italian, and other European decent I Theories of conspiracy in CA I A tolan committee was formed '- The militaries delay in providing reasonable and adequate property protection and its failure to provide warehouses or other secure structures contributed to initial evacuee losses Key People Crevecueur I A Frenchman trying to answer the question “What is an American?” I Qualifies: each person works for themselves, no one is a serf, I We cultivate the earth as a purifying activity I Says America is the most perfect nation in existence right now I Everything has to be new— so they break from the old world I In Europe religion was tied to the Nation, Americans were disconnected from religion, religious wars will not occur in the US, unlike in Europe. All sects go to the same church just to worship. The state will not endorse or prohibit any religion. Religious passion and zeal evaporates naturally because America is so large that they have to travel a lot and they are in the woods. I Americans being in the woods forces drenr to adapt to their environment and change from what they were, the woods generates and degenerates I Distance changes people’s manners I American feels a sense of national pride when he views the chain of settlements I There is no invisible power of any kind giving the power to a select few, and the rich and the poor are not as far removed front each other as they are in Europe I Everything is regenerated- laws, mode of living, social system, I The American is neither a European nor the descendant of one, he is a strange mixture of blood which you will find no where else. He is an American who leaves behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners and receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced, the new gov he obeys and the new rank he holds I The people living off in the wilderness often recede even farther into the wilderness when industry comes to them I Their children will therefore grow up less zealous and more indifferent in matters of religion than their parents William Warren I Decedent of Cljibway, French, and Puritans- he embodies a multiracial experience that resists the categories of racial identity, he must be considered just a western writer since no other category is applicable I He writes a history of the Ojibway people I The Djibway have no powerful friends to represent wrongdoings to them, unknown to a large portion of US I Live in area of lake Superior and sources of Mississippi I The believe the Great Spirit has granted them a long life on earth and life hereafter I The Jesuit missionaries who wrote about them made many mistakes and exaggerations, but it was considered history because there were no other accounts— Mr. Caitlin claims he was the first white man to visit the Dakota area when really it had been visited by white traders nearly a century before ' Long before white men an‘ived on the continent, their coming was prophesied by a man who could communicate wfspirits and see into the future— he said they would come in great numbers and sweep the red race from the hunting grounds which the great spirit gave them Frederick Douglass Black writer Showed that: it was a common belief that since slaves sang they were happy, but really the songs were protests to slavery —sing most when unhappy He realizes the power of ignorance has on enslavement and that keeping slaves ignorant was an intentional strategy ' He identifies himself with hamlet and then Patrick Henry “give me liberty or give me death: I Slaves fought over who had the best master-brainwashed ' The theme of the nan‘ative is freedom— in the form of literacy, from the slave holders, and Bal timoretindustrial cities I He reads some speeches from the revolution and some abolitionist things, the bible I Slave revolts: literacy played a key role in all of them- Nat turner, James Brown I Distinguishes between real Christianity ( considered more pure because the people backing the church were rich and not slave holders] and Southern Christianity {trade routes, agriculture based, unnecessary in industrial cities, conupted more economy of the south) Thomas Jeffemorl I President, wrote I Bought the Louisiana Purchase I Began the Core of Discovery: the exploration of the Louisiana Purchase by Louis and Clark — their mission was the find the Northwest Passage I Saw the nation as a canvas, used artificial borders because symmetry seemed natural I Called the natives a blot or a mixture I Wrote a report of a plan of government for the western ten'itory USA-{early draft of the Northwest ordinance 1TB?) 0 Temporary govenrments in the territories- once they have 20,000 free in habitants and then call a convention of representatives to establish a permanent constitution and government for themselves. Their temp and permanent constitutions based on 1. Stay forever a part of the US 2. People and property are subject to US gov, and articles of confederation, 3. Will be subject to pay deferral debts, 4. gov.’s will be republican in form and admit no one who holds a hereditary title, 5. after 1300 there shall be no slavery in any of these states o Once a real state they will be the same as any other state o Broke territory into square grid like territories with classical names 0 He was sure it was inevitable they would get the Florida’s Djibways I William Wanen wrote about their history I James Pull-t I President 18431840 0 represented the state of Tennessee, was governor of Tennessee I Declared war on Mexico during Mexican American War Cinque I Main man in Amistad Henry David Thoreau I “Walking”: I “Civil Disobedience” Ioways I Indians I Sense of justice and equity with intertribal conflict— if you breech on their property you give private propEFty, then changed to sacrifice yourself, Their cycle of revenge is ended with sacrifice (brother of guy who killed an Ioway sacrifices himself and is spared-ends the violence} Charles Sumner ' Sumner: agues that annexation of Texas and invasion of Mexico is unconstitutional. President orders General Taylor to go to war without consenting Congress which is necessary to declare war. First time that the U.S. invaded another country illegally. I To protect the union, you have to protect other nations. I The key word for him was freedom, Freedom and preservation of freedom—north, South associated with possession of property. He says the war is against freedom, against the union, and against the Free states, against everything American’s hold dear. II He thinks it is a war against the free states of the union. Slave supports have been presidents 56 years and free states only 12 John C. Calhoun Calhoun wrote for the slaveholding interests, used a constitutional legal argument. Said that because of the compromises in the constitution slavery was permitted and it’s the balancing power between slaveholders and abolitionists. He says US has taken land in past, why not Mexico as the natural progression of expansion. Says the right of possession will keep the country together He says that citizens of the older states have the right to emigrate with all their property wherever they want, and any laws that prohibit this is unconstitutional Albert Gallatin Albert Gallatjn: says that America is the first country to have a huge territory that can sustain a huge population. Sees acquisition of Mexico as against the ideas that America is supposed to stand for. What will keep the union together is the strength, wealth and independence of its people and boundless territory. He says that the right of possession is taking away the rights of others rights to freedom, and then Calhoun responds with that by freeing them, people are being taken away their right to ownership. Evokes question of natural rights- people fought for these things, but our nation is me first to have possession of those natural rights. Natural possession of natural rights vs. Calhoun’s possession of ownership. America is the first country to have these freedoms and other people are looking to them as a model -Rhetorical strategy to make the reader aware that they are being observed and to be a good model. He doesn’t use legality, national vs. state interest, he tries to eVoke moral character to beCome a model for the rest of the world, Moralizing argument Before now, America had never voluntarily injured another nation- all other acquisitions of land were in treaties and consent was given (can be questioned—Indian treaties they didn’t understand). The only kind of just war is a defensive war. One war to justify a war of choice {rather than necessity} is to say you are in imminent danger {like in Iraq war) Negative side to the right of possession is that then people want to possess what belongs to other people Uses question of race itself: one of justifications of war wfl'vlexico is that they are a superior race to the Mexicans Race is how you are bom, it questions American beliefs to question race. He says you should not be condemned for how you are born. Americans think that how you are boot is not deterministic, but whites are superior- Gallatin says you can’t thinlt this. It’s hypocritical. Equal rights should be guaranteed no matter who you or what your values are. Cailatin divorces the question of rights from racism and race and conquest, Calhoun links them Compromise is if you don't encroach on nry rights I won’t encroach on yours. Mexico is seen as another possession with America’s right to posses. Is slavery a national problem or state? If you create a law out west that they can’t own slaves it gives the slave its freedom and the constitution doesn’t forbid it. State should not take away their ability to prosper. Slavery becomes a species of property rights Is slavery a crime or is it a question of property. Is Mexico a question of property or between nations-they weren’t producing enough on the land, one excuse used to invade. Gallatin and Sumner say that they shouid grant other nations the rights that they want their country to have. Calhoun does not see it that way. Missouri compromise was bad because it drew a line through states saying slavery below the line, none above it. War with Mexico was a war against the free states to make slaveholding area more John Quincy Adams President Presented the Amistad case to the Supreme Court Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo Black Hawk Sank Indian in Rock River (W. Illinois) Sauk’s were allied with the British Conflict with Ptmericans: they explained that their great father at Washington accused them of crimes and misdemeanors (not coming when invited there], and he knew their great father had deceived them and thereby forced them to join with the British Use goose quill to give away his village— didn’t know what he was signing "The whites may do bad all their lives, and then if they are sorry for it when about to die, all is well. But with us tis different, we must continue throughout our lives to do what we conceive to be good” Maniage- consent by both The whites who took over their land quarreled amongst themselves as to boundary lines as well "My reason teachers me that land cannot be sold. The great spirit gave it to his children to live upon, and cultivate as far as is necessary for their subsistence, and so long as they occupy and cultivate it they have the right to the soil— but if they voluntarily leave it then any other people have a right to settle upon it. Nothing can be sold, but such things as can be carried away” Whites came to their village, got them drunk and stole from them Even though the whites were cruel to them, they never injured the whites back Black hawk does not understand how the whites reason and doesn’t understand their standard of right and wrong They were told if they do not leave (w of Mississippi that they would be forced to) Joaquin Murieta Califonria legend Written by John Rollin ridge (yellowbird) He isn’t real (there were 5 Joaquin’s), robin hood type character The book has 3 aims: o 1. attempts to create an exceptional character that confuses the simplistic hierarchy of stereotypes: when you have an exception you enforce the stereotype, tries to work against racist stereotypes of Americans, ca was such a mixed place it needed social cohesion o 2, to uphold a cErtain value system: rooted in masculinity and masculine honor, uphold honor in a lawless environment, or where the laws are corrupt, sometimes the outlaw can be the virtuous one, women should Ire honored-they enforce the code of masculinity o Ex: he tells his friend Joe Lake not to respect him because he knows he is a bad man 0 3. to create a foundational history of a state with a moraliaing myth through this representative figure: he leaves behind a lesson, everyone here is a bandit {Americans took land from Mexicans who look from Spaniards who took from Indians} He can’t die—mysterious demon watching him Is he moral? He does do some moral acts— he honors women, his band as seen as more evil than him, he is very masculine All Mexicans were stereotyped as working for him— he had lflfls of people working for him, lots of spies Indians are depicted as cowards and cunning Chinese Americans oompletely surrender to the band-cowards, called "alien" because they are so foreign they cannot assimilate Joaquin tried to participate in the American eoonomyr and assimilate and he is not allowed It is an allegory of failed assimilation Ridge was pro assimilatiom’compromise with gov—3* it’s the only way to survive Zane Grey Wrote the novel the vanishing American was based on He helped define the west through his novels about the west —cowboys and Indians Lewis and Clark 1' Expedition to explore new west ten'itories and find the Northwest Passage— called Tire Core of Discovery 0 They found the Sashoki Indians. ' Sacagawea led the - she was the sister of the Sasholti tribe’s leader ' They crossed the Rocky Mountains and found He: Purse (Indian) who helped them Saeagawea 4- Led Lewis and Clark on their journey 0 Sister of the Sashoki tribes leader John Rollin Ridge [yellow Bird} l Wrote Joaquin Murieta Frederick Jackson Turner - 1it'tirote “the significance of the American frontier” ' The frontier lies at the hither edge of free land and, the frontier ended in 1350 by the census declaring there is no longer tenitory that can be considered “the frontier” ' 4 aspects of process of the frontier: o 1. the spread of settlement steadily westward o 2. all the economic, social, and political changes involved in existence of a belt of free land at the edge of the settlement o 3. the continual settling of successive belts of land o 4. the evolution of these successive areas of settlement through various stages of backwoods life, ranching, pioneer fanning, scientific farming, and manufacturing life I 3 main ideas in the thesis D 1. the existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession and the advance of American settlement westward explain American development and shaped American democracy 0 2. the frontier process Americaniaes the pioneer in a synthesizing of opposite forces 0 3. the frontier phase of American history is over '| Key literary and rhetorical devices used: o Typology and Condensation: the pioneer, the frontier are elastic and unifying terms o Natural imagery, especially waves: naturalizes things, makes them seem natural opposed to choice o Personification of land and its effects on the question of human agencyfhistorical causality: the wilderness masters the colonists but it doesn’t actually do anything, settlers like the ocean —great unstoppable force 0 Literally gone, this is why there are so many books and paintings about it I Multiple Frontiers: trader, rancher, nriner, farmer ' 3 classes of men to go west: 1. the pioneer who depends on his family and the natural growth of vegetation— the “range” and hunting, 2. they purchase the land, add fields, clear out roads, build bridges over streams, plant orchards, mills, 3. men of capital and enterprise who take advantage of the rise in property, push farther into the interior, villages and towns pop up '- Salt and water were problems- early settlers were tied to the coast because of a need for salt so whEn new salt springs were discovered it allowed more mobility l The east and the west grew out a touch with each other—mountains in way II The east tried to halt westward expansion 0 He begins his story with Columbus discovering America in 1492 ' He said his speech the same day Buffalo Bill did his show across the way— different heroes (pioneerr‘scout), Different tools (plow and arteii rifle and bullet, different emphasis on Indian conquest— mastering the wildenressi'defeating the Indians I Idea of free land- was never free it was taken by treaties and conquest ' Continuous recession: continual rising of the price of the land as pop expands, less and less free land If what fuels America is running out, where do we go next? The story of the west is many stories — one person, many, groups, tragedy, conquest, buffalo bilis story was about shooting Indians like as seen in the movies His story is epic because of the story Frank Norris l Written in 1902, after American-Spanish war, we get Philippines, ISuuam, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii— area around the continental US ‘- His frontier involves money, capitalism, and its spread-competition and conquest {for tunier capitalism and monopoly capitalism II Non'is says that it is the Anglo Saxon that has a conquering way, not all Europeans- course of ElTlplTE ' In the 18935 the frontier beeornes globalrimperialistic Conquest. There is no longer excess land to absorb the over plus of energy ' Norris makes conquering racial and as a racial destiny, Pt sixth sense that they knew there was something beyond the sunset II Vocabulary of capitalism: trade war, commercial invasion- economics is the new frontier 1' Norris’s story is epic because is spans centuries: begins with when the frontier was Britain, then rediscovered when they crossed the Atlantic ' Patriotism: family, clan, city, province, stat, nation, empire, global l Norris is the most racist and the most optimistic of the 3 [turner and vanishing] Willa Gather My Antonia I Sound clip- western S Dakota is one of the last frontiers- urrpopulated open land, no urban sprawl, more cattle than people— “field of dreams philosophy”- economic model that people don’t know what they need until you give it to them , their closest neighbor is the land ' Cather moves from Virginia to Dakota, completion of transcontinental railroads standardized time zones (EGG before] Jim Burden doesn’t tell us anything about his life-we find out about him from 1‘I nan‘ator Americanization- debates mid W2, national identity as speaking English (lather thought Americanization was a deadly disease There was nativsm at the time [attempt to stomp out foreign languages] Jim teachers Antiorria English Most of the novel is true with changed names She is saying that not all American stories are success stories Jims PEN separates you from some of the deaths He looks forward to any new crisis with delight and wonders what happened When arrtorrias dad dies he stays at home and tends to the daily chores, excited to be in the house by himself '- Thinks he died of Iromesickrress and he couldn’t adapt - America doesn’t have any tenacious folk traditions- it is many diff cultures coming together 0 Jim has no traditions, this is why he idolizes Antonia— she embodies his youth 0 The colonies are fused but not homogeneous 0 It is a travel about meaning of history and American history — its about people filling in the land and also dreir stories (Jim’s sunflower seed story} I Concept that history is full ofgaps left to be filled in with the imagination 0 Boys in the town called Blackhawk boys 0 Jake and Auto represent the west to Jim—they are immigrants, don’t get many opportunities, they are very in tune with nature ' Spirits are connected to irnrrrigrarrts who couldn't adapt —Mr. shitnerda and peter and pavel ' Mr. Shamiderdais a sympathetic character, he fails because he is a guy who sold them their land screwed them over, he is a musician, no training [middle class background], waver— no value to him in Nebraska l Jim gets lots of opportunities because he is American, he is a metaphor for America same way we treat our past is how he treats his—kind of ignores it Turners composite American is absent from this novel Cather' shows that the place turner describes is not real Many people cant adapt Life on frontier can be very violent and random Even when Jim gets money he still is not content and happy 2 different economic models given in the model- fintonia (works with hands) and Jim {works with capital], Antonia is what Lincoln intended with the homestead act ' Jim has a sense that people should be in their proper place- Antonia is a girl and doesn’t speak English. It makes Jim angry that she is different ' Lena Linguard is very independent, rebellious, rejects woman‘s domestic sphere, doesn’t like to live under a root, says she cant order people away because its not her prairie , feels nothing is hers to take and not her authority to order people around ' At the end of the book he says the past is incommunicable and yet he’s just written a book, The end of the firs paragraph she says any one who hasn’t grown up in the prairie cant know anything about it Hisaye Yuammoto ' Wrote story called Death Rides the Rails to Poston about train mystery about Japanese internment camps. The FBI man thinks everyone hates him, and then he is murdered and narrator questions everyone, and they really do all dislike him, The guilty woman eventually jumps out the window— she poisoned him, the kid drank a little and passes out but is fine. I Wilshire Bus: woman on buss going to see her husband in a hospital because he is injured, and a mart makes rude connnents to a Chinese couple, another ntan tells them not all Americans feel that way and he believes in the melting pot of America. The woman remembers seeing a man with a button that says I am Korean and she feels betrayed. Brigham Young I Mormons ' led his followers, the Mormon Pioneers in an often arduous exodus through a desert, to what they saw as a promised land. John L. D’ Sullivan 0 was an American columnist and editor who used the term "Manifest Destiny“ in 1845 to promote the annexation of Texas and the Oregon Count_ry to the United States John Brown I John D. Lee ' was a prominent early Latter—day Saint (LDS or Mormon]: who was executed for his role in the Mountain Meadows Massacre. I John M. Shirvington I Leader of the Colorado volunteer militia. Fought the Texas confederate army I Compared to the east where there were few civilian deaths, there were many in the west— there was anarchy (killings, fires, stealing] 0 He becomes involved in a large massacre of Indians at San Quinton? John Sutter I Owned sutters mill where gold rush began I Gold rush ruined him- squatters took his land Forty-niners I Men who came to California in 1949 to mine gold I Came across whole country John Marshall I Discovered gold in his mill January 23, 1343 Cabeaa de Vaca ' His ship was blown to Tertas—l‘I people in the US I Goes from tribe to tribe and tries to get to Mexico City I Attempts to convert the natives to Christianity— is kind of them and they try to help him, he is a healer ' When they get to Mexico they meet other Spaniards who are killing then Indians and he tells his friends to flee, but when he leaves many are captured Father Junipero Serra I Started the 21missions in Cali I Joshua Norton I Rich man from London who went Crazy and declared himself emperor of the US. Fransisco de Basca Corenado: I Led a mission North to find the '3’ cities of gold I Found the Zuni people— pueblos, thought they were the first city I Spanish shot them when Zunis attacked, and they fled ' Found Zuni’s had no gold, but took over their place I Took over 13 cities and if they resisted they attacked I One group went to Cali, one to Hopis, one to Grand Canyon ' Finally got to Mexico after 3 years and gave up looking for gold II main Indian in charge of Indian resistance to the Spanish and he told the tribes to ban together i he got the Spanianis to leave but they returned 0 Spanish were more tolerant now and they began to interrnarry l ICame to the Indians from the Spanish to Navajo and Apache *- Changed the way of life for the Indian- more free time in which they used to be warriors, brave, celebrate, and light Fred Eaton and Milholan: ' Eaton was mayor of LA in 1904, Milholan was in charge of LA water, went to Owens river and tried to get an aqueduct to send that water to LA through the Sierras, got Teddy Roosevelt to help them, Eaton bought land it was in and water rights ' LHFBEH CDHStWEfiUn since completion of transcontinental railroad l Owens valley never recovered from the loss of the river Charles Goodnight: ' lived in Texas when it was a free republic, nrade a heard of buffalo so they wouldn't go extinct ' made a movie depicting the west where Indians were good, no bandits, no guns, buffalo fight at the end, but the movie never caught on because people already liked the "typical western” with cowboys and Indians and heroes John and Ethyl Love: *I only inhabitants on place the size of Rhode island called Muskrat Creek 0 lots of sheep and cattle but many died in the 1" winter - big storm flooded house people took away sheep, dogs, and equipment I finished another darn but another flood came and burst it i had 3 kids, 2 boys 1 girl, they went to College so they could succeed l they were forced to leave the ranch because they were sick, died in 135D and 59 Chief Joseph ' tried to get his land in Dregon back but not granted to him i he was friends with the people in Washington I buffan bill called him the greatest Indian America ever produced Our Founding Illegals- William Hogeland '- America’s pioneer values developed in an illegal context, George III made it illegal to settle west of Appalachians, and people did Immigration- and the llL'iurse of the Black Legend by Tony Horowitz l People think American history started with Jamestown and Plymouth Rock, pilgrims l The real early history of the US is Spanish not English II Joan Ponce de Leon landed in 1513 in Florida and then Spanish reached the Appalachians, Mississippi, Grand Canyon and Great Plains, went up Pacific coast as far as Oregon 0 154B Francisco 1y'azquez Coronado led 2000 men Spanish and Mexican Indians across the Arizona Mexico border *- The Black Legend: arose amid the religious strife and imperial rivalries in 16‘“ century Europe, Northern Europeans who hated Catholic Spain published book that depicted Spanish colonization as barbarous 1- "Anglo Americans inherited the view that Spaniards were unusually cmel and treacherous, superstitious, corrupt, cowardly, authoritarian” '- “the united states came to the Hispanic world, it is perhaps poetic justice that now the Hispanic world should return” Westward I go Free by Richard E. Nicholls 0 American West’s complex history invokes 3 nrythic figures: the homesteader, the vigilante, and the outlaw These figures embody the principles of the west: self— reliance, determination to protect personal freedom from the Corrosive assault of gov. and the satisfactions of a life spent close to the land Homesteaders liked the possibility of acquiring land to use it without interference from any group or institution Vigilante groups- took matters into their own hands for the purpose of law enforcement Outlaw- ruffian and outsider, uncomfortable with even the most rudimentary laws, disb'ustful of any community ties and defiant of the large businesses shaping the west-railroads, banks, and real estate The outlaw is an extension of the homesteader prizing self reliance above everything Unabomber: did what Americans have been doing for 2 centuries- reading into the west what we wanted to see William Lloyd Garrison '3? was a prominent United States abolitionist, journalist, and social refoiTner. He is best known as the editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator, and as one of the Founders of the American Anti—Slavery Society. Items from Readings: My Antonia, Douglas’s Narrative, and Joaquin Murieta Antonia Shimerda She suffETs many hardships but she still keeps going Says she never wants to go to a big city Antonia Shimetda= his dream of the nation The focus of Jim’s recollection, and one of his closest childhood friends. Antonia moves to Nebraska from Bohemia with the rest of her fatnin in her early teenage years. Intelligent, optimistic, loyal, and kindhearted, the naturally gregarious Bntonia is forced to accept a difficult life after the death of her father. At the time Jim writes the narrative, she is raising her large family on the Nebraska prairie, not far from where she and Jim grew up. Peter and Pavel I From Russia i Wolves: the feed the whole wedding party to the wolves to save themselves I Pavel unburdens his mind to Mr. Shitnerda - Jim never tells this story to anyone- he has a concept that things happen so that he can hear them ' Pavel - Tall, gaunt, and nervous, Pavel is an immigrant who falls ill under the care of the Shimerdas. He had been ostracized and forced to leave his native Russia after a frightful incident involving a wolf attack on a wedding party. i Peter - Pavel’s housemate, and a fat, happy man. Like Pavel, Peter was forced into exile from his native Russia following a wolf attack on a wedding party. Peter eventually finds himself severely in debt and sells off his belongings, leaving America for a job as a cook in a Russian labor camp. Jim Burden - Burden: heavy load, misfortune that causes grief, responsibility to carry something, main theme or jist of a book ' Book is really about him ' He becomes a lawyer and marries someone wealthy 1' Has all the opportunities that capital provides, not that human labor provides [Antonia can look at what she’s done with her hands, Jim cant) i Tells Antonia that he wishes he could have her as a wife, sweetheart, sister, or mother He thinks Antonia is a part of him, possesses her as an ideal I The author of the youthful recollection that makes up the body of the novel. As a youth in Nebraska, Jim develops a close friendship with a Bohemian immigrant girl, Antonia Shimerda. Jim is an intelligent, introspective young man who responds strongly to the land and the environment in which he lives. Unlike most other boys his age, Jim is more interested in academics and reflection than in roughhousing; in feet, he seems to prefer spending time alone or with girls such as fitntonia. At the time of the narrative’s composition, Jim is married, but without children, and working as a legal counsel in New 'r‘ork City. Wick Cutter 0 The leading moneylender in Black Hawk and a shad}r character, Blind d’Arnault " Samson cl’fitrnault — A blind, black pianist. D’Amault comes to Black Hawk on a blustery March weekend and gives a concert at the Boys’ Home that brings down the house. Rosalie II In Joaquin Murieta l Hugh Auld I Thomas Auld’s brother and Douglass’s occasional master. Hugh lives in Baltimore with his wife, Sophia. Thomas and Lucuetia Hold allow Hugh to borrow Douglass as a servant for Hugh’s son, Thomas, Hugh is well aware that whites maintain power over blacks by depriving them of education, and he unwittingl'},F enlightens Douglass in this matter. Hugh is not as cruel as his brother Thomas, but he becomes harsher due to a drinking habit in his later years. Hugh seems to suffer some consciousness that slavery and the law’s treatment of blacks are inhumane, but he does not allow this consciousness to interfere with his exercising power over Douglass. Joe Lake II Joaquin‘s friend from long ago who he meets and asks him not to tell of his whereabouts or he will have to kill him - Joaquin tells him he doesn't have to respect him because he knows he is a bad man Three-Fingered Jack '- Part of J oaquin's band of bandits II Most brutal of the gang l Dou glas’s Aunt I Douglass‘s aunt. Aunt Hester is an exceptionally beautiful and noble-looking woman, superior to most white and blaclt women. Captain Anthony is extraordinarily interested in Hester, and she therefore suffers countless whippings at his hands. Content from Lecture: I Themes in westward expansin 0 Land: property vs. Great Spirit, a major defining feature of America I Lowned ' 2. Cultivated: grow and sell to create an economy [euro-American view). Jefferson wanted a nation of farmers 8t self—sustaining people I To the Native American: cannot own, given to them by the Great Spirit, the earth itself is divinity and they were a part of that. Thought of community as a whole, not individualism 0 Nature: vs. Wilderness I Wilderness: as dark and scary and needs to be tamed or as where the enlightenment ideas came from [not bound by rules and regulations-like Thoreau) I In the enlightenment nature was seen as validating and everything natural was good. Freedom is the natural state of thing. Anything foreign seen as unnatural I The Indians were seen as being closer to nature I fimericans saw themselves as belonging to nature instead of the Old 1v'tforldrlliurope I Jefferson saw the continent as an extension of natural freedom 0 Culture: cultivation of soil vs. justice and equity I how people deal with the land I from the worlds cult and cultivate {to till the soil) I idea drat you become a better human if you cultivate your land I Europeans said US had no culture because they lived in the woods I Dne view is culture is the least complicated one in touch with the land, more primitive stage of cultUre I Americanjustice and equity is in the Net’s culture its just not written [I Civilization: vs. savagery and barbarism I Indians don’t have “civilization” so they must be savages I Indians have culture but not civilization I Luther Standing Bear did not feel the Indians were ready to assimilatefadopt the ways of white people—shouldn’t they choose whether they want to or not 0 Race: vary contradictory I The first attempt to define an American was DeCrevcour- French I Race has to do with blood-white blood, black blood, red blood, so when you mint races you get a new type of blood [hard to identify) I Whites can mix, but not wid1 other colors —“all nation" only refers to all European nations 0 Destinytfate: I Destiny: predestined, already written, DR chance I Pate: what will happen or inevitable, goes back to nature because natures laws don’t change 0 Nation {foreignfdolnestic} : I Natures nation: it did not include natures children though [Indians], because they did not fit this new idea I Foreign: treaties are assumed to be with a foreign nation, but with the N.A.’s this line is blurred I The process of claiming territory DUO 00 or: 00 O U I} There were 4 obstacles to the spread of “Natural Freedom” via the “empire of liberty”. Starts with 1?:33 Treaty of Paris where US is from Atlantic to Mississippi 1, British in the North: War of 1312 marks end of conflict with Britain 2. Spanish possessions in the SE and Mexico: in 1319 Spain cedes the Florida’s and Cuba 3. French rule over New Orleans and the territories west of the Mississippi: 1803 Louisiana Purchase ends French obstacle 4. The "fate" of the Indians: 17’3? Northwest Ordinance had a provision about Indian rights, IFS-5 Treaty of Greenville- Indians ceded much of Ohio and Indiana, 1830 Indian Removal Bill- Cherokee trail of tears [forced to relocate to Oklahoma) Shifting Boundaries: ' The west: free vs. slave I North and south: Mason Dison line ' Multinational Atlantic slave trade routes: between Queen of Spain who was a “mega Maps and boundary markings In 1?]8 Jefferson purchased La Louisiane from France: country of Apache owned by the Indians, the Belt of Mississippi was a main waterway 1300 and 18m} settlement: by ITUD only a small area along the upper coast was settled An early map of the colonies shows a veryr grid—like nature and straight lines as states— idea that nature is rational and we can rationalize geography [enlightenment need for order) 1813: Louis and Clark go to the Pacific, there is an area called the Mouisouri territory MUG-1820: Oregon country is joint owned with British- split at 49'“ parallel, Polk purchased the rest of CA 182fl-185ti: Mexico rebels against Spain, CAL beCornes a state, there are Utah, Oregon, and New Mexico Territories, and Unorganized territory between Oregon and Minnesota 1856: 5 years before civil war, equal representation of densely populated areas question Towards 1900: almost nonnal except for Oklahoma- Indians sent there Expansionist beliefs o Sacred: biblical, providential ' Thomas Jefferson relates the American experience to the Hebrews which legitimates and says its divine intention when its related to the bible ' Used this to coin manifest destiny in 1845 o Secular: enlightened, natural, universal ' America as chosen by god and as a privileged state for the exhibition of a “new world order” for the benefit of the ages and for all people I It was a manner of interpreting the time and space of “America” as a progressive and universal process Thoreau o Naturehvildemessfwildness D Went to jail for not paying his taxes, he had a radical commitment to principal. The two acts that landed him in jail were war waexico and slavery. o He links slavery to the west by the Mexican war under the argument that Mexicans were not cultivating the land enough 0 He calls govenirnent a machine and the citizens cogs o “In wilderness is the preservation of the world“-natural freedom and democratic Future o He gave the lecture ‘Walking" all over, fav., associates less civilized land wftreedom, goes west for Freedom “eastward I go by force, westward I go free” :2:- Its natural for people to want to revolutionalize because people don’t want to live in oppression o He thinks the gov should make people so that they don’t need laws to govern them-can there be a gov. ruled by conscience instead of gov? 0000 D You have to consent to the govemment, you don't have to consent to nature He resists by non-cooperation- not paying taxes, In the 50s Joseph McCarthy got a book banned from all libraries cuz it contained Thoreau When he goes tojail he says his conscience is notjailed. He describes thejail as the opposite of nature He sees democracy as the best Form of government that has yet come along because it is based on fairness and equality, but we aren’t there yet so there is still corruption I Cultural perspective and authority: rhetorical strategies for a narrative writerrnative informant 0 1. Reversal of Civiliaatioru‘Barbarism Binary I this never Wrote so they were considered "pre-historic” I They always wrote to a white audience to gain sympathy, but they questioned authEnticity and thought it got changed in translation I Writers are trying to demonstrate humanitytprove they are human which is showing you have a culture and a history I Black Hawk also criticizes other Indians; he uses reason in his arguments. I Black hawk says what is portable can be owned, what cant can’t D 2. Estranging perspective on white culture pracdces I The see the cross as a waving stick and realize they are human by realizing they can see things too I In slavEry they took away everything “human” or else it became harder- Slaves were not allowed to look masters in d1e eyes, drey broke up families I Estrangement with the quill- they didn’t know what they were signing D 3. Embodying American self-reliance, consent, and justice I Black hawk says that yes I grew up in the wild and I may not be “civilized” but this is all true. He says he has read the books about them and they do not agree with their accounts of them, some is true but much is exaggerated I Consent: not a free people if you do not consent to vote, the opposite of consent is force, and if you are forced ur not free I Black hawk does not want to consent to the sale of his village I Black hawk: he talks about his people marry (man picks woman and informs his mother who tells her mother, if she blows candle out=consent. The consent should be obvious to everyone. Practical rituals to see if they can get along I Him and Emerson share similar views in that they both want self reliance and private property 0 4, Reclaiming representations I Historical memory and the claim of “firsmess” I Demonstration of humanity" spirituality and literacy I Representation in artistic sense is the view of the artist, in a political sense it is what the people wanted I Americans don’t practice their own ideals: whites said they were intruding on each others land when it was the Indians to begin wt I fired Scot and the meaning of the constitution I The “boundaries of freedom”: boundless or circumscribed 0 00000 The west and boundaries of slavETy and freedom The boundaries of language and meaning [Dred Soot) Boundaries of citizenship (Dred Scot) The frontiers of Nature and Society [Thoreau] The fiontiers of morality and right Physical boundaries: jail, the body, mason Dixon line, the Atlantic CI 0 Freedom seen as endless and boundryless, but really there are Nan: Thoreau describes boundless walking, wants to escape the totem which has boundaries Freedom and nature unknowable and moral and property ownership and civilization is Corrupting and unnatural Saw the best human having no home, but being at home everywhere Distinction between what is moral and what is legal- what is constitutional is not always moral What is meant by “semantic boundaries”? {in Douglass’s narrative and in Dred Scott]: semantic boundaries as signs, marks, significance, or meaning that become institutionalized or legalized and that delineate opposed meanings of D D 00 Christianity: to support slaves or not, southern Christianity is no Christianity at all- Douglas Cultivation and culture: culture plantation, and Douglas becomes cultivated by becoming literate American: Spielberg sugar coats the Americans-good at heart, it's a movie so you have to appeal to them Humaru‘Animal cargo: slaves referred to as cargo Blackfwhite: Douglas is mixed race but he is white Dwnershipforigin: debate of who belongs in America when everyone has come from somewhere else Names: translator had 2 names, one African and one American-divided identity [names tell you historyr or erase it] Violence (“niassacre"f”freedom fight"): first thing lost in war is o'uth-Churchill Domesticationffamiliarity vs. foreignfeso'angementfalienation: slavery is called a domestic institution because it takes place at home, the master is sometimes referred to as your family but they are also enslaving you Rhetorical and visual strategies in the battle ever shifting meanings D D D D D Spectatorship: render suffering as obscene spectacle and reader or viewer especially a white as shiftness to the experience of blackness Mediation: of persuasive authority between black and white and between whites and whites Translation: not just between languages but between culture codes and signs Familiarization and estrangement: reversing connotations, perspectives, and interpretations— shifting or enlarging that which the viewer identifies with Douglas shows that slavery turns die slave and the master into beasts and they lose all their humanness The dilemma of representing black bodies and souls: the frontiers of body and meaning, of representers and represented I} D D Rendering the obscene spectacle of slavery risks tunring the viewer into a spectator and those who suffered under slavery as objects or beasts Rendering the soul of suffering black slaves often tends to produce the equivalences of Human yearning for freedom which is the same as American yearning for freedom The specificity of African origins and meanings are not erased by slaveholders but repressed by the abolitionists for the sake of a “higher” and “universal” meaning. As a result African Americans have been rendered in drastically diametrically opposite terms that obscure their specific humanity as beasts or cargo DR as suffering like Christ The Mexican American War {historical Background and cultural implications) John Rollin Ridge’s Background [II He is lCherokee- his dad and granddad were pro-move, is his tribe was both and other other half killed them when he was 12, he killed one of them later in revenge o his mother was white o He grew up in new England o He is getting his own revenge through Joaquin The relationship between “the vanishing American” and “Social Darwinism” The west and the civil war o Missouri t:- Kansas Ridge’s aims for writing Joaquin muriela [be able to provide examples from the text for each aim} D To complicatefprohlemize American exceptionalism It:- To uphold a value system through a code of masculinity o To create a foundational history for California through moralizing myths Review Questions What is the heliotroplc myth and what is its relation to the American west? [think Whitman’s "facing west front California shores” What are some of the competing stories about the west? 0 Optimistic stories: 0 Stories about progress and destiny: 0 Stories about inevitable decline: or Tragic stories: o Stories of hope and despair; 0 Stories of cultural mixing: (racial intolerance, intermarriage, assimilation) What sort of ideas does the western myth entail? And what sort of stories does it leave out? What are some of the ways writers reversed or revised the equation whiteness=civilization or the equation IndiansIMexicanstBlacks=savagery? Wl'tat story does Crevecoeur present of the American-his past, his present, his place, his future? What exemplifying stories are presented in support? What stories are left out? How does Crevecoeur plant metaphors to present his point? (examine the major contradictions: leave the past yet carry on tradition; a melting pot yet strong nationalist characteristics; radical freedom yet shaped by environment; respectable and domesticated middle class yet wild, almost animal—like men; most: truly civilized and lawful yet inhumane slaveholders according to law, ect] According to Ctevecoeur, what is the basic difference between the social so‘ucture of the European countries and that of the American colonies? Name and describe any ten significant events in LLS. history from 12334—1925 What does Thoreau associate with the west and why? In what ways were Mormons seen as un- American? Why were they in Utah? “resistance to civil gov.” does not exactly read like a nature essayr esp. compared wt”wall{ing’ but Thoreau’s thoughts on gov. may be related to his thoughts on nature. Discuss the connection; in particular consider what he says in the first few p‘s about humans. gov. regulation and Conscience. Dred Scott was the plaintiff [person who sued the defendant}, Why did he sue the Emerson 's and John Sanford? What was his goal? Name 3 competing interests in the Amistad case and describe how they were resolved What is Douglass’ explanation of the slave songs he heard on the plantation? Why is he still emotionally moved by the songs as he writes and thinks about them in retrospect? In his narrative, Douglass demonstrates how the institution of slavery proved to be “injurious” to both slave and slaveholder, give 4 examples of both. which may include how slave—owners maintained black subjugation. 1What were the territorial concessions involved in the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo? Did the treaty language define citizenship in the conquered territory? Were religious rights guaranteed? Did the treaty protect the rights of land ownership in the conquered ten'itory? why does Sunrner describe the Mexican American war as a struggle for “slavery power"? Who is Albert Gallatin'.r1 Why does he oppose the Mexican wanr how do his reasons for opposing it differ from summers? How does Douglass view the Mexican war and why? what drives Joaquin rnurieta to a life of crime? What groups are the targets of his criminal activity? what groups and individuals does he spare? What kind of code does he live by? What is the homestead act of 1352 and how did it influence westward expansion? What role does Frederick Jackson turner argue the frontier has played in American history:1 How does tUrner connect the ingenuity of the American frontiersmen with the ever-present influence of nature? How does frank Norris’s notion of the frontier and the American west similar to Frederick Jackson turner’s? In what ways are they different? What is the myth of the “vanishing American”? How does the film the vanishing American help us understand the assimilation of Native Americans? How does the film “naturalize” the fate of the indian and lie that fare into the meaning of America? What is the significance of Antonia for Jim Burden? Is there a discrepancy between what she meant to him when he lived in Nebraska and what she came to mean to him after twenty years back east? What accounts for the difference and how is it related to the changing face of America and the American form of the lBBDs to the early 213‘“ century? What is the relationship between Americanization and immigration? What challenge did immigration pose to white Americans’ sense of themselves up to the lE‘rEfls and howr did immigrants from Europe figure differently from native Americans in the shaping of American identity in the early 20"“ century Why do western landscapes have so much to do with imagining what it means to be American? How do the prairies differ from say, monument valley in the southwest in that regard? ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/04/2009 for the course ARLT 101g taught by Professor Gustafson during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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Midterm Study Guide - American Studies Slug: America, The...

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