Lec3_08BIEB102

Lec3_08BIEB102 - BIEB 102 Lecture 3 Niches, biomes &...

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BIEB 102 Lecture 3 I. Niches II. Biomes III. Major biomes of the earth IV. California floristic province
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I. Niches A niche is a summary of an organism’s tolerances and requirements. Niche : n-dimensional hypervolume defined by axes that represent the different environmental tolerances and resource requirements of a species. Fundamental Niche : the full range of conditions under which a species can survive and reproduce Realized Niche : portion of fundamental niche that a species can actually occupy as a result of its interactions with other species No two species will occupy the same niche space, but species often overlap to varying degrees.
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I. Niches Begon, Harper, and Townsend (2006) (a) different plant species (b) sand shrimp (c) hypothetical aquatic organism
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I. Niches The niche concept originated from insights Joseph Grinnell published about the distribution of California Thrashers in 1917. Grinnell considered a niche to be a subdivision of a particular habitat. This bird species is restricted to the California Floristic Province. Within this region California Thrashers are restricted to chaparral (and sage scrub in central and southern California). Ground-foraging but require a closed canopy and open under story for running. This species is shy - most often seen in the spring when males sing.
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I. Niches California Thrashers become more widespread and common in southern California where scrubby habitats (especially chaparral) are more extensive. Many animals can actively select the appropriate type of area in which to live. Habitat selection QuickTime ± and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
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Solar energy, rainfall, topography and soil characteristics all influence the character of vegetation (and NPP ) in terrestrial environments. Biological communities can be grouped together on a global scale based their overall character. Biome: a major type of biological community - defined by characteristics of the dominant vegetation The same biome in different parts of the world harbors different species and different diversities of species. Note the terrestrial bias inherent in this concept Marine provinces are also defined based on biotic characteristics. II. Biomes
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II. Biomes Geographical distributions of biomes correspond closely to climate. Soil type and topography - important local influences Boundaries between biomes can be mosaic and irregular. Fire plays an important role in maintaining certain vegetation structures. Most biomes can be subdivided based on finer classification schemes. Biomes provide a convenient reference point for comparing ecological processes across communities.
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II. Biomes Biomes result in large part from how plants respond to the environment. But
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Lec3_08BIEB102 - BIEB 102 Lecture 3 Niches, biomes &...

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